Funded Research Projects

Department of Visual Arts

Catherine RICHARDS

ObjectACTS

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2020)

Through the research/creation of artworks, ObjectACTS engages in the contemporary debate about the social agency of objects and their capacity to act in the world. This heated exploration, simultaneously arising across the domains of contemporary art, philosophy, and cultural theory is altering our view of what constitutes being human, what characterizes an object and the role of art object making. ObjectACTS will amplify the ways the social force of objects is manifest by creating new art objects that exemplify agency in pointed ways. ObjectACTS identifies three sites with unique relationships with objects: heart transplants, specific kinds of Aboriginal objects, and virtual objects.

 

Celina JEFFERY

Ephemeral Coast: Curating Environmental Change

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2015-2019)

Ephemeral Coast is a curatorial research project that seeks to investigate our difficult relationship to the coast as a threshold and frontline to climate change.  It considers the possibilities of understanding art in relation to what may be described as an unparalleled event. The focus throughout will be on exploring new methods of critical art discourse through curation, leading to thought-provoking and highly public outcomes reflecting on hybrid role of the researcher/scholar/curator.

 

Department of Classics and Religious Studies

Jitse DIJKSTRA  

"I wish to Offer a Sacrifice to God Today": Religious Violence in Late Antique Egypt

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2015-2019)

The period of Late Antiquity (4th-7th centuries) has long been perceived, and is stil often perceived, through the lens of (Christian) literary works, which tell dramatic stories of violence against temples, statues and even "pagans", and may give the impression that this was a period of widespread religious violence. Egypt, with iconic events such as the destruction of the Serapeum at Alexandria and the anti-"pagan" crusade of Abbot Shenoute in the region of Panopolis, has often been seend as a good illustration of the pervasive nature of religious violence in the Late Antique world. This project takes a different view. by using Religious Studies theories and models on religious violence and including all the other sources available from Egypt - papyri, inscriptions and archaeological remains - a more nuanced and complex picture arises, which shows that events were often dramatized for ideological purposes and that religious violence was the exception rather than the rule. This study, the first even book-length synthesis on religious violence in Late Antique Egypt, will be presented in the form of a series of regional case studies, which allows us the view occasional outbreaks of religious violence in the context of specific local or regional circumstances.

 

Adele REINHARTZ 

Soutanes et sacrements: The Catholic Church in Québécois Feature Films since the Quiet Revolution

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2014-2019)

This project examines the representation of Catholicism in Québec films since the period of the Quiet Revolution. The hypothesis is that French-language fictional feature films, produced in Québec primarily for a Québec market, are a site for negotiating the tensions between Catholicism and secularity that came to a head in the Quiet Revolution but has by no means disappeared from Québec society. The research will show that Québécois films both perpetuate and also subvert stereotypes and expectations, often in the same film. Post-Quiet Revolution Québécois cinema thereby resists a uniform and simplistic representation of Québec society with respect to Catholicism and secularity. In their nuanced treatment of this tension, widely-viewed Québécois films serve as a site for identity construction on both the individual and collective levels, mirroring the ambivalent and even self-contradictory ways that viewers, and their communities, relate to Catholicism in their public spaces and private lives.

The project will fill a gap in the study of religion and film in general, and Québec film in particular. It will also contribute to an understanding of religion in Québec, to the relationships among Catholicism, society, and popular culture, to the issue of Québec’s Catholic heritage (le patrimoine), and to the study of immigration, accommodation and acculturation of non-Catholic communities in Québec. In analyzing the multiple, ambivalent, and often contradictory representations of religion in Québec films, the project will provide insight into the ongoing negotiation between Catholicism and secularism in the construction of identity in Québec private and public life. It will also contribute to reflection on the preservation and transmission of “le patrimoine” and the accommodation and acculturation of non-Catholic minorities.

The potential impact of this project extends beyond the borders of Québec, and Canada. While Québec cinema has its own particular historical, social, and cultural contours and contexts, many other countries and jurisdictions have experienced transitions from religious homogeneity to secular diversity – Spain, Ireland, Italy, Latin America and Israel, among others. In many cases, the national cinemas of these countries reflect the tensions and ambivalences inherent in this transition. The study of religion in Québec cinema will allow for a broader understanding of these profound social changes, particularly with regard to the role that films, and the national film industries might have in expressing the transition, reflecting and perhaps also shaping the impact of such changes on personal and collective identity, and contributing to the public discourse and debate that attends such processes of social transformation. The project will therefore contribute to our understanding of Québécois cinema and its relationship to society, and, more broadly, to an assessment of the role of mass-market cultural products in reflecting and thereby also shaping the construction of identity in cultures in transition from homogeneity to diversity, and from religiously-based social and value systems to secular ones.

 

Department of Communication

Geneviève BONIN

Mapping the professional orientations and worldviews of Canadian journalists

SSHRC funded Insight Grant (until March 2019)

The Worlds of Journalism Study (WJS) is a research project that aims to assess the state of journalism throughout the world. The central objective of the Canadian component of the study is to explore how Canadian journalists think about their profession and identify, social roles, and ethical values within a changing news ecosystem. The WJS has broken records in comparative communication research by bringing together researchers from 66 countries around the world. The Canadian francophone component of the project is led by Geneviève Bonin (co-applicant) in collaboration with Ivor Shapiro (principal investigator) & Heather Rollwagen (co-applicant) leading the English component at Ryerson University. The research team aims to map the professional identity of Canadian journalists while studying the disparities between Francophone and Anglophone journalists.

 

Boulou Ebanda DE B'BÉRI

Canada's 19th Century Black Press: Roots and Trajectories of Exceptional Communication and Intellectual Activism

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2021)

This research begins with the premise that early in 19th century, Canada's Black Press played a decisive role: (1) in the design of cultural and racial relations in Canada; (2) for Canada's involvement in transatlantic activism and (3) in the creation a multicultural national fabric; even if the practices and the names of journalists who used this means of expression have been left to the margins of the Great Canadian history as well as those of Communication Studies. Our main objectives are to (1) identify, (2) inventory, (3) track and (4) disseminate the history, communication practices and evolutionary trajectories of the Canadian Black Press.

 

Sylvie GROSJEAN

Urgence, hyperconnexion et stress numérique à l'hôpital : Une Application mobile pour reprendre le contrôle?

CIHR-funded Catalyst Grant: Work Stress and Wellbeing Hackathon (2017-2019)

L’objectif de ce projet est de concevoir une solution de cybersanté mentale au travail sous la forme d’une application mobile simple d’utilisation pour les professionnels de la santé travaillant à l’hôpital (médecins et infirmières) et qui vivent un « stress numérique » (Reinecke et al., 2016). Dans ce projet, nous abordons la question du stress numérique en interrogeant les dimensions commucationnelles et organisationnelles des phénomènes de stress et de souffrance au travail (Barley et al., 2014, Wajcman et Rose, 2011). Au cours des dernières années, les médias n’ont cessé de rapporter les cas de détresse psychologique chez les infirmières et les médecins travaillant à l’hôpital. En effet, les cas de malaise, de fatigue, de stress chronique n’ont cessé de faire les manchettes en mettant notamment en perspective les situations de travail qui sont de plus en plus génératrices de stress et de souffrance. Comme le soulignent Jourdan et al., « selon les résultats de différentes enquêtes, la souffrance au travail s’est accrue, produisant des pathologies spécifiques et désormais classifiées comme pathologies de surcharge » (2010, p. 26). De plus, les professionnels de la santé travaillant à l’hôpital œuvrent dans un environnement fortement technologisé (téléphone portable, pagette, systèmes d’informations médicaux, etc.) et ceux-ci se plaignent d’être confrontés quotidiennement à une production élevée d’informations (notes, mémos, flux de messages via le courrier électronique, dossiers médicaux, etc.) qu’ils vont juger dans certains cas inutiles. Dans ce contexte certains travailleurs s’épuisent à vouloir réaliser une série de tâches urgentes et n’arrivent plus à gérer leurs priorités et vivent des pressions, des surcharges qui vont créer plus ou moins de souffrance physique, émotionnelle ou psychologique. Ces phénomènes de surcharge sont bien documentés dans la littérature et sont des sources non négligeables de stress numérique (Assidi et Denis, 2005; Becker et al., 2013; Isaac et al., 2007; Mark et al., 2016). Il est notamment fait état de « surcharge informationnelle » (information overload) qui renvoie aux difficultés qu’un individu rencontre pour traiter un volume important d’informations, pour les localiser, les récupérer, les vérifier, les comprendre, et réagir au contenu. La notion de surcharge informationnelle est aussi très liée au phénomène de l’urgence, de la pression temporelle (Taylor et al., 2008 ; Blanc et Ettoghoffer, 2002), phénomène lui-même largement attribué à l’introduction des technologies dans les collectifs de travail (Autissier et Lahlou, 1999; Eppler et Mengis, 2004; Metzger et Cléach, 2004). On parle aussi de « surcharge communicationnelle », qui renvoie aux difficultés rencontrées par un individu du fait d’un excès de sollicitations de la part de son entourage et de ses différents interlocuteurs ; ceci exigeant de lui une disponibilité immédiate. Mais, elle renvoie aussi aux effets négatifs que peut générer la superposition de différents dispositifs de communication (ex. : Blackberry, pagette, e-mail, téléphones). Par conséquent, la conception d’une application mobile dans ce contexte est l’occasion d’intégrer les connaissances scientifiques produites ces dernières années sur les différentes sources de surcharge à l’origine du stress numérique à l’hôpital et sa gestion dans une solution de cybersanté mentale au travail. Pour ce faire, l’application mobile à concevoir devra permettre aux médecins et infirmières travaillant à l’hôpital : (1) d’identifier les sources de stress numérique auxquelles ils sont soumis (formes de surcharges cognitives, communicationnelles et informationnelles) et d’en mesurer l’impact sur leurs conditions de travail et leur niveau de stress et ; (2) leur proposer des stratégies individuelles et collectives adaptées à leur niveau de surcharge et ainsi les aider à reprendre le contrôle sur leur environnement et réduire le stress numérique. Pour ce faire, nous allons privilégier une approche et méthodologie basée sur le « Participatory Design » (Bodker et al., 1993 ; Simonsen et Robertson, 2013). Une telle approche nous permettra de concevoir une solution de cybersanté mentale au travail intégrant les différences de genre, intergénérationnelles et culturelles; tout en étant bilingue (du fait de notre partenariat lors de la phase de conception avec l’hôpital Montfort).

Martine LAGACÉ 

Leviers d'action contre l'âgisme au travail : une exploration du rôle du climat intergénérationnel

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2021)

La main-d'oeuvre canadienne vieillit. Pour autant, les discours publics sur le vieillissement demeurent
ambivalents comme en font foi les expressions fréquemment utilisées telles que « Tusnami gris », « bombe démographique », etc. Les études ont montré que de tels discours renforcent les stéréotypes âgistes envers les travailleurs âgés (productivité et motivation en déclin, inadaptabilité, etc.), ouvrent la voie à des pratiques âgistes (pratiques corrélées à un accès limité aux promotions et à la formation continue des travailleurs âgés). Enfin, les impacts négatifs de l'âgisme au travail sont aussi solidement documentés, au plan personnel (intériorisation des stéréotypes, désengagement et insatisfaction) comme au plan organisationnel (perte de savoir et de mémoire corporative). Il en va désormais de circonscrire les facteurs organisationnels pouvant réduire l'âgisme au travail et ce faisant, augmenter la satisfaction et la rétention des travailleurs, jeunes comme âgés. À ce jour, aucune étude empirique canadienne ne s'y est consacrée et c'est le but global de ce programme. Les facteurs organisationnels ciblés découlent d'une étude empirique pilote, effectuée en 2016-2017 auprès de 794 travailleurs francophones, âgés entre 18 et 72 ans, provenant majoritairement du secteur public québécois. Les résultats modélisés de cette étude suggèrent que la perception d'un « climat intergénérationnel positif » réduit, significativement, auprès des travailleurs jeunes comme âgés, la « souscription aux stéréotypes âgistes » (ciblant l'avancement en âge); en revanche, cette diminution génère davantage de « satisfaction » chez l'ensemble des travailleurs. Dans la foulée de ces résultats, le présent programme vise à : a) augmenter la validité du modèle de
réduction de l'âgisme en le mettant à l'épreuve auprès d'un échantillon pan canadien de travailleurs,
francophones et anglophones, provenant des secteurs publics et privés; b) évaluer une extension de ce modèle en mesurant les retombées de la réduction de l'âgisme sur la rétention des travailleurs et c) déterminer la stabilité des liens entre les variables de ce même modèle en intégrant une dimension longitudinale à ce modèle. La toile de fond théorique s'appuie sur le postulat principal de la théorie du contact intergroupe (à savoir que les contacts entre membres de différents groupes favorisent le développement d'attitudes exo groupes positives et contribuent à réduire de ce fait, la souscription aux stéréotypes négatifs), rarement mis à l'épreuve dans le contexte de groupes sur la base de l'âge. Au plan méthodologique, le modèle de réduction de l'âgisme au travail sera testé par le biais d'un questionnaire lequel inclura des échelles de mesure des cinq concepts à l'étude. Ce questionnaire sera acheminé à des travailleurs âgés de 18 à 75 ans, dont la langue de travail est le français ou l'anglais, oeuvrant dans des secteurs publics et privés de l'Est, l'Ouest et du Centre du Canada (échantillonnage par grappes, échantillonnage ciblé = 3000). Au chapitre des retombées théoriques et pratiques, ce programme
contribue à l'avancement des connaissances en circonscrivant les facteurs permettant de réduire l'âgisme
au travail, facteurs qui, à ce jour, restent inconnus. Les résultats offriront également des pistes d'action
quant à la rétention des travailleurs.

Patrick McCURDY

A Tar Sands Tale: A critical study into the events and mediatized legacy surrounding the banned CBC
docudrama 'Tar Sands' and the holding power of fossil fuels over the social imagination

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2021)

As the world stands on a climate precipice and Canada at an energy crossroads, this project addresses one of North America's most significant, visible and internationally contentious energy and environmental issues: the fate of Alberta's oil sands. Drawing on media, environmental communication and energy humanities scholarship this project is based on the premise that media -- local, national, legacy and social -- are significant arenas for the public to learn about, debate and make sense of the tar/oil sands within Canada's energy past, present and future. Of particular interest is a banned and little known docudrama called Tar Sands, broadcast by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in September 1977. Tar Sands was a dramatized re-enactment of the political struggles surrounding Alberta's then Premier, Peter Lougheed, as he negotiated and secured the Syncrude agreement. Immediately following Tar Sands' broadcast Lougheed launched a libel lawsuit against CBC which was eventually settled out of court in 1982 with CBC agreeing to pay the Premier damages, air a nation-wide apology and never again 'publish' the Tar Sands docudrama. In the 35 years since this settlement, Tar Sands has been unavailable to the general public or even to CBC staff (note: the PI has a legally
obtained copy of Tar Sands).

CBC's settlement with Lougheed all but erased the docudrama from public memory. At present there is a stark absence of references to Tar Sands in the historical narrative surrounding Canada's tar/oil sands. Yet the 1977 Tar Sands broadcast and the ensuing lawsuit represent a seminal, though largely unstudied and unknown, moment in energy and petroleum debates within Canada. Addressing this lacuna, this project will interview individuals involved in Tar Sands' broadcast and political scandal as well as draw on archival documents and past media coverage to shed light on the first major media controversy surrounding Alberta's tar/oil sands. It will link academic concerns about docudrama with political arguments criticizing and defending Tar Sands to analyze how, if at all, debates over format displaced discussion about content and, specifically, economic and environmental concerns over oil/tar sands development. More broadly, this research will analyze Tar Sands' creation, political, legal and media legacy, as well as the controversial discourse that surrounded it in order to connect the docudrama with fossil fuels' domination over the Canadian political and social imagination. This objective is premised on the assertion that understanding our contemporary fossil-fuel soaked culture and the mediated debates within it requires us to connect significant moments in, and dominant ideologies of, the past with the present.

My study will bring a media and communication perspective to the emerging field of energy humanities which critically analyzes modernity's reliance, entanglement with and need to contain fossil fuels. This research will also enhance theoretical discussions by bringing mediatization, environmental communication and energy humanities literature together. In doing so, it will strengthen how we understand mediatized struggles over the environment in an age of fossil fuels and at a time of energy transition which, in turn, can assist in theorizing, envisioning and enacting our mediatized (and energized) social future. Project findings will also be of interest to scholars in environmental history, law, and Canadian politics. Lastly, as a striking artifact of Canadian petroculture, Tar Sands research will be of interest to the broader Canadian public.

Department of English

James BROOKE-SMITH

Experimental Humanities: Literature, Pedagogy, Utopia, 1768-1847

SSHRC Insight Development Grant (2018-2020)

My research project explores the role played by educational experiments in the formation of the modern humanities in the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. While a number of prominent scholars, such as Stephen Bygrave, Alan Richardson, Alan Rauch, and Alice Jenkins have studied the central role played by education, as both social practice and cultural ideal, within Romanticera literature and culture, few have paid sustained attention to the era’s proclivity for educational experiments and utopian pedagogical communities. Scholars have often dismissed these schemes as faddish eccentricities and deemed them marginal to the historical development of mass education that took place in the later nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
My study, by contrast, begins from the premise that the practice of educational experiment was a central concern within the Romanticera moral and human sciences, not a “bug” but a “feature” of the investigation into the defining limits of the human.

My research will focus on three distinct forms in which Romanticera authors conducted experimental investigations into the limits and conditions of mankind’s educability. 1) Pedagogical treatises or manuals, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Emile (1768), Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), William Godwin’s The Enquirer (1793), and Richard and Maria Edgeworth’s Practical Education (1798). 2) Literary texts that treat education as a central theme, such as Thomas Day’s The History of Sandford and Merton (1789), William Godwin’s Caleb Williams (1794), William Wordsworth’s The Prelude (1805; 1850), Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818), and Percy Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound (1820). 3) Experimental
educational practices and institutions, such as William Godwin’s 1793 plans for a seminary at Epsom; Thomas Day’s Rousseauian experiments with his adopted daughters, Sabrina and Lucretia; Rowland Hill’s Hazeldean and Bruce Castle schools; Charles Fourier’s socialist “phallansteries”; Robert Owen’s New Lanark community; and Jeremy Bentham’s plans for a “chrestomathic” school.

Working across these three domains – theory, imaginative literature, institutions – this will be the first study to trace the central role played by what William Godwin called the “science of education” in the emerging discourse of the human sciences and, by extension, the academic humanities as they were installed in the modern school and university systems later in the nineteenth century. This is a research project that will study the past in order to illuminate a pressing issue in the present. Today, in an era of dwindling student enrolments and waning public support, advocates of humanities education often find themselves adopting a defensive, or even conservative, position. We seek to preserve institutional practices whose origins are bound up with outmoded forms of class privilege and cultural distinction, and whose salience seems threatened by the increasingly instrumental focus of the modern university. My project, by contrast, seeks to demonstrate the foundational role played by experiment and innovation in Romanticera literary culture and humanities education. In this way, I aim to contribute not only to existing bodies of scholarly research on the cultural history of education and interdisciplinary studies of literature and science, but also to the public debate about the value of humanities education that is currently taking place both within and beyond the academy.

Cynthia SUGARS

Imprinting Authority: Literature, Community, and Settler Legitimation in Pre-Confederation English Canada

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2017-2022)

This project explores the ways ideas about the public value of literature were being used to foster an emergent sense of civic community and white colonial identity in Anglophone British North America in the pre-Confederation period (1790-1860). It focuses on the Atlantic provinces and Upper and Lower Canada where the bulk of anglophone literary culture was taking place in the early part of the 19th century. Authors in this period were actively formulating ideas about the nature and importance of a domestic literature in creating possibilities of civic intervention and communal cohesion. This was a period of considerable unrest (symbolized most dramatically by the aftershock of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, and the 1837-38 uprisings in Lower and Upper Canada) but also of cultural and intellectual fermentation and consolidation. Both in the periodical press and in individual publications, writers repeatedly expressed a concern with the hurdles and character of colonial authorship, and an interest in the larger public role that authors could play in the emergence of a distinct settler colonial identity. We explore these developments by concentrating on four specific areas: (1) the ways that writers in this period sought to articulate a broader public role for themselves as pedagogical agents, extending "rational entertainment" and "instruction" to the "desk of the Merchant and the fireside of the Farmer," as Joseph Howe proclaimed in the Novascotian; (2) authors' emphasis on literature's power to foster contending forms of regional and proto-national community; (3) the emergence of a new understanding of "the literary" within the broader print culture of the period in ways that reinforced these pedagogical and community-building efforts even as it helped to legitimize settler autonomy; and (4) the complex ways that these debates were shaped by a transnational flow of ideas, images, and publishing opportunities between pre-Confederation English Canada, Britain, and the United States.

Département de français

Lucie HOTTE 

Les réseaux littéraires franco-canadiens: 1970-2010

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2015-2020)

Ce projet porte sur les rapports qui unissent les institutions littéraires acadiennes, franco-manitobaines, franco-ontariennes et québécoises tant du point de vue des collaborations entre les organismes (co-édition, création d'organismes communs en édition, en recherche ou en critique littéraire) que des collaborations entre les individus (rencontres d'écrivans, écriture conjointe de livres, etc.). Cette étude qui porte plus particulièrement sur les institutions littéraires franco-canadiennes minoritaires en Acadie, en Ontario et dans l'Ouest canadien s'avère cruciale pour mieux comprendre leur développement parce qu,elle n'examinera pas que les liens entre les acteurs d'un seul milieu mais aussi les rapports que les acteurs d'une érgion entretiennent avec ceux des autres régions incluant le Québec. L'Ojectif principal du projet est de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement des réseaux littéraires franco-canadiens minoritaires en analysent les relations entre les actants des divers milieux.

 

Patrick IMBERT

Les histoires qui nous sont racontées: des narrativités causales à l'instant transculturel dans les littératures contemporaines des Amériques

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2019)

On étudiera les récits individuels liés à de grands récits de légitimation (Lyotard) donc ce qui médiatise la valorisation des objets de désir. La plupart des récits reposent sur la causalité-conséquence et la temporalité menant à la transformation d'un contenu inversé en contenu posé par le biais de conflits (Greimas). Cette causalité mène chez Girard à un ordre fondé sur l'exclusion d'un bouc émissaire. Girard et Greimas travaillent sur des schémas et des concepts qui manifestent des similarités. Leur sont communs objet, vecteur de désir, exclusion et des éléments comme adjuvant/opposant pour Greimas, modèle, groupe imitateur, bouc émissaire pour Girard. Pourtant, aucune recherche avancée ne les compare pour montrer en quoi la narrativité représente jusqu'à récemment un système légitimant des solidarités fondées sur les exclusions et le rejet de l'altérité.

 

Kasereka KAVWAHIREHI

L'essai francophone africain: de la Négritude à l'"afropolitanisme"

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2023)

La critique littéraire et la recherche consacrées à la littérature africaine ont eu tendance à privilégier l'écriture de la fiction (poésie, théâtre, roman), laissant ainsi dans les marges d'une intelligence critique de la production littéraire africaine et de la société un pan important de sa production culturelle et de son objectivation. Pourtant l'essai peut s'avérer être sinon la porte d'entrée à la respiration et à la vitalité spirituelle des sociétés africaines modernes, du moins « une réponse spécifiquement littéraire à de nouvelles 'inquiétudes' intellectuelles » » (Macé), aux enjeux culturels, sociaux, idéologiques d'une société face aux défis de sa construction à une période marquée par la perte des évidences ou des certitudes. Le rejet de l'essai dans l'invisibilité par la critique littéraire et la recherche consacrées à la littérature africaine est d'autant plus problématique que l'essai participe de l'élan fondateur du discours négro-africain sur le monde d'une part et, d'autre part, précède et/ou accompagne l'écriture de la fiction africaine depuis les années 1940.

Il s'agira d'abord d'identifier la forme « Essai », parmi l'abondante littérature d'idées en général en délimitant ses contours (esthétique, pragmatique, épistémologique) et ses connivences avec les autres genres, et de cerner les espaces de son émergence (les revues telles que Présence Africaine à Paris, Afrique chrétienne et Congo-Afrique à Kinshasa, Abbia au Cameroun, La revue des peuples noirs à Paris, etc.) et sa manière de prendre position dans le champ littéraire. Il s'agira aussi de saisir l'essai francophone d'abord comme une oeuvre littéraire au sein de laquelle l'écriture va de pair avec l'analyse, ensuite comme prise de position dans le débat intellectuel de son époque et comme « voix sociale », c'est-à-dire expression de la vérité cachée d'une société à la recherche d'elle-même et, enfin, comme espace de remise en question, grâce à l'effort conjoint de la pensée et de l'écriture (style), d'un certain nombre d'idées et attitudes consacrées par la tradition.Notre démarche se voulant diachronique, nous construirons l'histoire de l'écriture de l'essai en Afrique en repérant les moments de mutation et constituerons, enfin, une typologie des essais selon le ton ou mieux les critères esthétiques dominants et les questions traitées, sans oublier d'établir la trajectoire des essayistes. En définitive,l'examen
diachronique de l'écriture de l'essai francophone africain introduira à une réflexion pressante sur l'histoire culturelle/intellectuelle de l'Afrique au moment où le continent doit opérer un mouvement de reprise du passé inachevé afin de se construire une mémoire pour le futur.

France G. MARTINEAU

Normes et pratiques linguistiques au Québec (1763-1914): mobilité, réseaux et alliances

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2018-2023)

La langue, par sa force identitaire et sa capacité de cohésion sociale, est partie prenante des changements de fond qui affectent la société canadienne, de la Conquête (1763) jusqu'au début de la Première Guerre mondiale (1914). À ce jour, aucune étude systématique et globale n'a été entreprise sur la langue française et les usages qu'en font les individus de toutes classes sociales au Québec pendant cette période. C'est pourtant à cette époque que le français québécois se détache de celui de la France, notamment parce que la population se retrouve en relatif isolement avec la France et que les contacts avec les anglophones s'intensifient. Or le Québec de l'époque est loin d'être homogène du point de vue de la langue, et le nouveau paysage linguistique porte les traces du brassage de populations, notamment par la migration de Français et d'anglophones qui s'intègrent à la société québécoise ainsi que par le mouvement des campagnes vers la ville. L'ensemble de ces facteurs aura des retombées importantes sur l'évolution de la langue.

Trois grands axes de recherche structurent notre programme :
1) Langue de l'élite québécoise et réseaux atlantiques. Dans l'espace atlantique entre 1763 et 1914, soumis à de profondes réorganisations sociopolitiques, la mobilité sociale et géographique d'individus ainsi que leurs alliances familiales, politiques et culturelles sont au coeur des réseaux de diffusion du changement linguistique. Cette perspective en réseaux, encore peu explorée, permet d'interroger différemment la nouvelle réalité des rapports entre l'ancienne colonie et la mère-patrie. Quel a été le rôle joué par la bourgeoisie dans la trajectoire du français québécois ?
2) Le français québécois, carrefour de plusieurs cultures. La société québécoise du 19e s. voit l'arrivée de nouveaux contingents de Français et d'anglophones et un repositionnement des pratiques linguistiques dans un espace où différents groupes sociaux se côtoient dans les sphères du pouvoir. Comment ces tensions ont-elles façonné le français québécois ?
3) Entre villes et campagnes, réallocation sociale et régionale. Au 19e s., des usages locaux autrefois acceptés se trouvent déclassés par une élite surtout urbaine, qui voit en la langue un outil de sa promotion sociale. Comment s'est produite la fragmentation régionale et sociale et quel rôle ont joué l'urbanisation et l'émergence d'une bourgeoisie francophone?

La perspective de la sociolinguistique historique que nous adoptons est originale à plusieurs points de vue : a) par une approche globale de la dynamique linguistique, incluant des scripteurs de toutes classes sociales, y compris l'élite ; b) par l'analyse des usages mêmes des locuteurs dans leurs correspondances privées ; c) par l'étude de la réallocation sociale et régionale de variantes locales grâce au croisement de sources ; d) par une théorie du contact et du changement tenant compte des réseaux. Cette étude éclairera un maillon essentiel entre le français québécois ancien et actuel, indispensable pour saisir la trajectoire de cette variété de français au 20e s. de même que la nouvelle réalité multilinguistique du 21e s. Comprendre comment s'est développée la  spécificité du français québécois, c'est se donner les outils pour mesurer des enjeux contemporains des communautés francophones au Canada, notamment l'apport de nouveaux arrivants à la dynamique linguistique et les effets de l'insécurité linguistique. Ce projet, en faisant dialoguer la linguistique avec d'autres champs des sciences humaines et sociales, dont l'histoire sociale, pose des questions cruciales sur ce qui façonne l'identité des individus à travers la langue et leurs trajectoires de vie.

Aux sources du français québécois (1763-1840): pratiques et discours linguistiques

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2014-2018)

Entre 1763 (Conquête) et 1840 (Acte d’Union), le Québec (Bas-Canada) a connu d’importants changements sociopolitiques qui ont eu un impact sur la circulation des représentations et des usages du français tel que pratiqué dans la province, contribuant ainsi à l’émergence du français Québécois comme variété distincte. Parallèlement, après la Révolution française de 1789, de nouveaux usages linguistiques dans la métropole ont entraîné un écart avec ceux en usage au Québec. Or, peu d’études se sont penchées sur la période après-Conquête au Canada français dans une perspective sociolinguistique, et aucune, à notre connaissance, ne s’est intéressée aux liens entre pratiques réelles des locuteurs et discours métalinguistiques pour cette période charnière dans la formation du français québécois. Notre projet a pour but de combler cette lacune en prenant appui sur les acquis de la sociolinguistique historique. L’originalité de notre projet réside dans : 1) l’articulation entre les usages et les discours sur la langue; 2) l’étude du changement linguistique à travers des corpus peu explorés jusqu’à maintenant; 3) la réflexion théorique sur le changement linguistique à partir d’une analyse de la grammaire des vernaculaires.

Notre programme permettra de comprendre l’émergence du français laurentien par rapport à d’autres variétés de français, et le rôle joué par les réseaux sociaux, institutionnels et médiatiques. Ce faisant, il permettra de mieux saisir les enjeux de la francophonie d’aujourd’hui. En effet, en ce XXIe siècle d’échanges culturels accrus en raison de la mondialisation, les représentations et les pratiques sont des indicateurs de la vitalité linguistique des communautés et il est important de comprendre comment elles ont contribué à façonner les identités.

 

Maxime PRÉVOST 

Le Canada de Jules Verne : savoirs, représentations, imaginaire social

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2014-2019)

Ce projet de recherche porte sur Jules Verne et le Canada. L'auteur des «Voyages extraordinaires» est le seul auteur majeur du XIXe siècle français qui se soit intéressé de manière soutenue au Canada, qu'il appelait «mon pays de prédilection» (lettre à Pierre-Jules Hetzel du 31 mai 1887). En effet, trois de ses romans sont consacrés au Canada («Le Pays des fourrures», 1873; «Famille-sans-nom», 1889; «Le Volcan d'or», écrit en 1899, première publication posthume en 1906), et des personnages canadiens jouent un rôle important dans d'autres romans tels «Vingt Mille Lieues sous les mers» (1869) et «L'Épave du Cynthia» (1885). Il est pourtant fascinant de constater que, dans toute son existence, Jules Verne aura passé moins de 24 heures au Canada : tout son savoir sur la géographie, l'histoire, l'ethnologie et les moeurs du pays lui proviennent de sources livresques et, surtout, de la presse contemporaine, tant quotidienne que périodique. Jules Verne est en effet un homme en prise directe sur le discours social de son époque, et qui se distingue par la maîtrise qu'il en affiche : tout ce qui s'écrit, se pense et se représente dans la presse et la littérature contemporaine pénètre ses notes de lecture et la composition de ses romans. Il explique ainsi sa méthode de travail dans un entretien de 1893 accordé au journaliste Robert Sherard : «J'ai toujours avec moi un carnet et, comme ce personnage de Dickens [Mr. Pickwick], je note d'emblée tout ce qui m'intéresse ou pourrait me servir pour mes livres. [...] [J]e lis d'un bout à l'autre quinze journaux différents, toujours les quinze mêmes, et je peux vous dire que très peu de choses échappent à mon attention».

Les représentations que Jules Verne donne de son «pays de prédilection» constituent ainsi le laboratoire idéal pour réfléchir à la notion d'imaginaire social : à partir de quelles explorations du discours social un lecteur compulsif et éclairé comme Jules Verne parvient-il à fixer des représentations précises et informées d'un pays étranger? Afin de comprendre les fondements de l'imaginaire vernien du Canada, ce projet se fixe donc comme premier objectif de cartographier et d'analyser l'imaginaire du Canada qui circule dans l'imprimé, en France, entre 1870 et 1900. Il s'agira de procéder à un dépouillement volontairement élargi : revues, grands quotidiens d'information, travaux historiographiques, romans se déroulant au Canada, récits d'exploration, autant de sources qui ont contribué à l'institution imaginaire de ce Canada français d'encre et de papier. Rendue possible par ce travail préalable, la deuxième phase du projet consistera à analyser le Canada de Verne : autant pour ce qu'il récupère de ces discours auxquels il s'abreuve, que ce qu'il construit de particulier dans son oeuvre romanesque, contribuant fortement à l'imaginaire social du Canada qui circule en France dans la deuxième moitié du siècle. Notre projet se situe ainsi au confluent de la sociocritique, de l'analyse des discours et de l'histoire culturelle.

 

Department of Geography

Jackie DAWSON 

Change and Economic Development in Arctic Canada (CEDAC): identifying priorities for policy, governance, and adaptation

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2014-2019)

The circumpolar Arctic is predicted to garner investments ranging from $100bn to $225bn over the next decade as climate change improves international shipping routes and accessibility to natural resources (Mikkola & Käpylä 2013). The Canadian Arctic is central to this economic boom and its vast stores of untouched natural resources and increased access to the Northwest Passage provide enormous opportunities for national prosperity, pride and wealth. Yet for those living there, the Artic is home, and it is experienced quite differently. There are immense social, economic, and environmental challenges facing the remote and predominantly Inuit communities dispersed across the region. In the eyes of these residents, developing the capacity to meet the coming challenges is as pressing as the nation’s need for economic growth. There is an urgent need to understand what will enable the nation to keep pace with circumpolar economic development initiatives while safeguarding the sustainability and well being of local economies and culture.

In addition to the moral duty of a nation to ensure the sustainability and well being of its communities, the land-claim agreements that have been settled between the Government of Canada and Inuit organizations produce an important foundation for local development. They create frameworks for the devolution of power and local control, which are crucial ingredients for improving the outcomes of citizens and in facilitating internally driven and sustained economies (Peterson 1995). However, the upcoming development rush will most certainly challenge the capacity of local organizations, governance bodies, and political structures currently in place.

In this context of a largely externally driven development pathway, it must be questioned whether we have moved past the colonialist history of the region, which included external interventions into nearly every aspect of community life, or whether we are simply modifying the approach to colonization by paying lip service to the current context of an Inuit homeland and territorial government with particular economic and resource responsibilities. The end results of the colonialist history have been devastating and have led to ongoing concerns and poor outcomes for individuals and some communities. The looming economic boom risks similarly poor outcomes unless it is based upon real partnerships and a greater understanding of how communities can leverage development opportunities in ways that can establish self-sustained and locally dictated and desired economies.

This research utilizes a new approach to examining community development in the Canadian Arctic that has substantial potential to co-generate innovative knowledge and policy for much desired socio-economic progress in the region. The project was developed directly with Inuit and regional partners in the territory of Nunavut through a series of workshops and formal and informal conversations over the past two years. Essential authorities and community groups in the region, including Nunavut Tungavik Inc. and hamlet councils of four communities, have provided formal support for the research and a pilot case study has already been completed. The proposal has also been discussed and refined through consultation with relevant federal agencies and it is clearly in line with Canada’s national priority areas, which include improving “development for people in the North”. As the current Chair of Arctic Council, Canada has an important opportunity to lead the international conversation on sustainable economic development of circumpolar communities. The timeless and importance of understanding how we can generate national wealth and ensure sustainable local economies in Arctic Canada is clear.

 

Konrad GAJEWSKI  

Evolution of North American Ecosystems over the past 20,000 years

NSERC-funded Discovery Grant (2015-2021)

This research program uses a paleoenvironmental approach to understand climate variability and climate change impacts on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of the research program is to study the scales and mechanisms of climate variability and to quantify terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem interactions and response to long-term climate variability. The role of human impacts, on a continuum from the first arrival of humans on the continent as the Ice Age was ending, to the introduction of extensive agriculture, the arrival of Europeans and rapid industrialization is a key aspect of the research program Although components of these interactions and processes are studied through various means, in this project the entire period can be studied uniformly and comparably using new data collected for this purpose, but especially through the study of extensive databases of paleoenvironmental data that are rapidly being developed, and to which our lab has made a significant contribution. In the short-term, this is done through four interrelated projects. First, we are developing new paleoclimate reconstructions from Arctic and boreal sites, to better understand the natural variability of the Arctic and to place current warming in context. This uses the early Holocene (5000-9000 years ago), when the Canadian Arctic was quite warm, as a potential, although imperfect analogue of the future and will study in the detail the Medieval period (another relatively warm time) in comparison to today. As the Arctic is changing due to global warming and regional impacts due to resource extraction are increasing, this study will provide insight into what will be these effects in the coming century. These results are put in a global context by a second project reconstructing climate changes of the past 20000 years in the Northern Hemisphere and the world. By better quantifying past climate variability, it will enable climate scientists to place current climate variability in its proper context. Comparing past climate reconstructions with the output of climate models enables climate modellers to improve their models and be able to better forecast the future. New data from the Gatineau Hills will determine how forests respond to long term climate change, and to disturbances such as fire and extensive logging and agriculture. This can be used in forest management, as the timescales of our study is centuries and the impact of current activities is also centuries in length. In addition, we are studying how the lake ecosystems of the region have varied in the past, in relation to the major climate changes, and also by changes in forest composition and land use. This will help to understand how much the lakes of the area have been impacted by events of the past 150 years. A study of the interactions of humans and the environment over the past 15000 in North America will enable us to better understand the impact of European colonization on the landscape. By studying in more detail the nature of the vegetation before the arrival of Europeans, and determining how Native Americans impacted the environment, and were impacted by climate changes of the past, we can better understand how current activities are changing the global carbon balance, as we need a correct baseline on the nature of the forests before the extensive impacts of the industrial age.

 

Antoni LEWKOWICZ 

Characteristics and evolution of discontinous permafrost in northern Canada at multiple spatial scales

NSERC-funded Discovery Grant (2014-2019)

Discontinuous permafrost can be thought of as a partchwork, with seasonally frozen areas and water bodies interfingering with patches of perennially frozen earth materials that vary in size, spatial concentration, thickness, depth to the permafrost table, and thermal regime. Some thin permafrost patches have mean temperatures just a few hundredths of a degree below 0°C, so their thaw due to recent and future climate warming may occur relatively rapidly. Others may take many decades to thaw following climatic warming unless affected simultaneously by changes in drainage. This research program examines the variation in permafrost distribution and temperature characteristics at micro-, local and regional scales along transects in the Yukon and Labrador, extending from the zone of isolated patches (1-10% of the terrain underlain by permafrost) northward, or upward, to the zone of continuous permafrost (>90% of the terrain underlain by permafrost). The findings will address fundamental questions about the way ground temperature, and hence permafrost distribution, varies along climatic gradients. They will also examine how permafrost distribution changes as the climate warms. The results will assist in better representing discontinuous permafrost in global and regional climate models. In addition, they will be pertinent to predictions of the rate of thaw of permafrost and hence to the potential for positive feedback in the global climate system due to stored carbon release. A combination of field monitoring, geophysical techniques, computer modeling as well as traditional aerial photo interpretation and remote sensing will be used to carry out the research program. The work will involve the training of several graduate students, as well as collaboration with federal government, provincial and territorial-based researchers, and communities. The results are expected to be relevant to assessing the impacts of thawing permafrost on the hydrology and ecology of permafrost regions, as well as helping predict and mitigate the impacts of permafrost degradation on northern infrastructure and resource development.

Brenda MACDOUGALL

They Are Not Like Us: The Emergence and Convergence of Prairie Metis Kinscapes

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2018-2021)

This purpose of this project is to explore the emergence of singular plains Metis kinscapes (relational constellations) to determine how they functioned cohesively over time and space, and how they also braided themselves together intergenerationally and across multiple prairie regions to create a unified sense of nationhood in the 19th century.

Challenges or Issues Addressed by Project: Research undertaken by Macdougall and St-Onge on plains Metis buffalo hunters revealed that specific families consistently allied with one another yet seemingly avoided making similar connections to other families. To understand this, we will now examine the intersection of 19th-century regional familial networks spread across the prairies to analyze how Metis from various places conceived of and expressed their peoplehood through an array of social and political actions. To do this, Lakomäki's (2014) idea of kinscapes is useful. Kinscapes defined a cultural landscape permitting a people to maintain political cohesiveness despite geographic dispersal. Conceiving of Metis society as ordered by a series of kinscapses is an innovative way to imagine the nature of differences between types of prairie Metis whose origins were rooted in different locations but emerged virtually simultaneously. We are also interested in how they united to press their political sensibilities. When needed, kinscapes temporarily merged to pursue political goals central to their shared well-being. This project seeks to explore the interplay between prairie regions by treating kinscapes as
epicenters of Metis political economy and cultural florescence.

Potential Contribution to Research in Terms of Advancing Knowledge: In order to reconstruct these kinscapes, we must first reconstruct genealogies of each family, utilizing sacramental and census data already collected from a dozen separate archival repositories scattered across Canada and the United States and transcribed and now available online (http://dadp.ok.ubc.ca). Once those are completed, we will utilize Social Networking Analysis (SNA)---the process of investigating social structures through networks and graph theory---and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)---a means to engage Indigenous geographies through digital mapping techniques---methods to produce innovative and meaningful visualizations of those kinscapes. The kinscapes can then be triangulated with extant archival documents, including petitions, court transcripts, journals, correspondence, reports, historical maps, and ethnographies, to determine the context in which the Metis enacted their relationships. Textual sources contextualize significant events and provide information about the lives of individuals and families, while engagement with digital methods permits the creation of visual models of Metis
networks. By employing this methodology, we will produce a new approach to conducting Metis history that embraces their Indigenous episteme of relatedness (physical and spiritual) regardless of gender or age, how they structured their societies, how they identified friends from enemies, the protocols and principles that governed alliances, and how they rationalized their sense of place through their idea of peoplehood.

Wider Potential Benefits: Examination of Metis kinscapes fits SSHRC's call for scholars to address how the experiences and aspirations of Aboriginal Peoples are essential to building a successful shared future. For this to happen, knowledge about the historical values, ways of knowing, and experiences that shape how Metis people, communities, and political organizations view their rights today is required. More importantly, it is essential that Metis people themselves be inspired by their own past as they pursue the future they want.

Department of History

Eric ALLINA 

Building the Revolution Abroad: Mozambique and East Germany, c. 1960-1990

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2015-2019)

When Germans began to dismantle the Berlin Wall in October 1989, soon followed by the reunification of East and West Germany, the ensuing political transformation uprooted thousands of young Africans from Mozambique living in what was East Germany. Over East Germany’s last decade of existence, a state-to-state cooperation agreement between the two countries sent more than 20,000 young Mozambicans to Berlin, Dresden, and dozens of small towns throughout East Germany’s industrial heartland, where they received training and worked in textile, electronics, chemicals, and food processing factories. In gaining new skills and new experiences in a “brother” socialist nation, they were to become “new men of the revolution” and then return home to continue the socialist transformation of their own society.

This project will tell a story hardly known outside its general outlines and, moreover, will establish a model for transnational social history, showing that research—like the history it examines—must cross state boundaries, both in method and in the frameworks used. The research explores the historical connection between the two countries, going back to its origins in Mozambique’s anti-colonial struggle of the 1960s and the GDR’s efforts to position itself as the champion of the Third World (as it was then called) in the global north. In tracing the history of their experience in East Germany, the research examines their relationships with fellow workers—German and African—at work and in social spaces away from the factory; how they negotiated the extensive official controls on their movement; and the strategies they developed to maintain wider connections, both within East Germany and with their home country. This project will develop a narrative that explores both ends of the history, bringing them together in a single whole, showing how this movement of young African workers joins together the history of labour, the global history of the Cold War, and the trajectory of an independent African state.

 

Michel BOCK 

Diversité, intégration et réconciliation: la conscience historique des mouvements de jeunesse
francophones hors Québec devant le paradigme du postcolonialisme (1982 à aujourd'hui)

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2022)

Ce projet vise à analyser l'influence du paradigme du postcolonialisme sur l'évolution de la conscience historique des mouvements de jeunesse franco-canadiens (hors Québec). Depuis les années 1980, ces derniers posent un regard beaucoup plus critique qu'auparavant sur le passé de la francophonie canadienne. Pendant les années 1960 et 1970, alors que la «Révolution tranquille» battait son plein et que l'idéologie de la décolonisation gagnait les milieux nationalistes du Canada français, une partie de la jeunesse revendiquait une forme de réparation historique de la part de la majorité anglophone, lui reprochant d'avoir nié le statut de minorité nationale des francophones du Canada et de leur avoir imposé une forme de domination coloniale. Or, depuis les années 1980, les mouvements de jeunesse semblent concevoir autrement l'expérience historique de la francophonie, laquelle aurait elle-même engendré une forme d'exclusion qu'il importe désormais de « réparer » en favorisant la « reconnaissance », voire l'intégration de groupes ethnoculturels marginalisés dont, en particulier, les peuples autochtones et les minorités francophones issues de pays en voie de développement. De collectivité dominée, voire colonisée, ayant subi une longue injustice historique, la francophonie canadienne, selon cette perspective
radicalement différente, est souvent présentée, à l'heure actuelle, comme une collectivité dominante restée indifférente, historiquement, devant l'injustice subie par certains groupes ethnoculturels défavorisés, lorsqu'elle n'y a pas elle-même contribué. Le phénomène semble avoir conduit les mouvements de jeunesse à rompre plus ou moins profondément, selon le cas, avec les fondements traditionnels de l'identité de la francophonie. Il les a aussi poussés à entreprendre un nouveau type d'action politique reconnaissant le caractère multiculturel de la société canadienne et privilégiant le dialogue et la réconciliation avec les communautés autochtones et les minorités ethnoculturelles francophones, ainsi que leur inclusion dans le projet politico-identitaire de la francophonie canadienne. Notre projet est fondé sur l'hypothèse que les mouvements de jeunesse ont contribué de manière significative au changement social de première importance que représente l'irruption du paradigme du postcolonialisme dans l'espace public de la francophonie canadienne depuis les années 1980. Les trois axes d'interrogation suivants guideront notre démarche : 1) Postcolonialisme, internationalisme et conscience historique; 2) Conscience historique et action politique; 3) Le débat sur le postcolonialisme au sein du milieu associatif franco-canadien et dans l'espace public.

Kouky  FIANU

L'espace d'un hôpital : les archives de l'Hôtel-Dieu d'Orléans (XIIIe-XVIe s.)

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2018-2023)

La place qu'occupent les réseaux sociaux aujourd'hui a contribué à nous rappeler que l'archivage n'est pas une opération neutre : une donnée conservée a des effets, parfois inattendus, voire indésirables. En outre, la capacité de stockage inédite des plates-formes électroniques a soulevé avec acuité nombre de questions relatives aux archives. A-t-on le droit à l'oubli ? Comment éliminer des informations devenues embarrassantes une fois qu'elles sont archivées sur un serveur commercial ? Qui détient l'accès aux archives ? Que fait-on avec les données conservées ? L'archivage est ainsi aujourd'hui une préoccupation d'ordre public qui touche institutions et particuliers. L'archive constitue en outre le matériau de base des historiens. Aussi l'histoire des archives et de l'archivage influence-t-elle l'histoire faite avec des archives. Il arrive qu'une histoire soit faite sans les archives, soit parce qu'elles n'existent pas (comme l'a montré l'histoire de l'esclavage ou de la colonisation), soit parce que l'historien n'y cherche que ce qui l'intéresse ou ce qu'il pense y trouver. C'est le cas de l'histoire de l'Hôtel-Dieu d'Orléans, un hôpital médiéval, sur lequel porte cette recherche : les travaux existants ont étudié l'institution comme un lieu d'accueil et de soin des indigents, en relevant dans ses archives ce qui permettaient d'illustrer cette fonction. Un inventaire des archives médiévales composé en 1561 donne une tout autre image : celle d'une institution qui se comporte en seigneur foncier, qui en conservant et en classant les documents en sa possession agit sur son environnement social. L'inventaire recense des milliers d'actes relatifs à des locations, des baux et des redevances liant des tenanciers à l'hôpital. Chaque acte est sommairement décrit dans l'inventaire de 1561 qui rapporte en outre le classement des actes dans quelque 400 sacs. Les sacs étaient identifiés par un nom de lieu et renfermaient les actes, datés parfois de plusieurs siècles, propres à un bien (habitation ou terre) situé en ce lieu.

Le projet a pour objectif de montrer que l'étude des modes d'archivage donne accès à l'idée qu'une institution se fait d'elle-même et à ses fonctions premières. Il s'agit donc d'analyser les archives de l'Hôtel-Dieu telles que l'institution les a sélectionnées et décrites dans l'inventaire de 1561. L'aspect topographique qui structure tout l'inventaire est conçu comme l'élément déterminant de l'archivage à l'hôpital. Par ailleurs, chaque acte étant l'expression d'un rapport social entre le seigneur (l'Hôtel-Dieu) et ses dépendants, la recherche place la dimension spatiale des rapports sociaux de l'hôpital au coeur de l'analyse. À terme, l'image de l'Hôtel-Dieu n'est plus celle d'un lieu d'assistance, mais celle d'un seigneur assurant par l'écrit son autorité sur des lieux et leurs habitants, exprimant par l'archive son espace social. Le relevé détaillé des lieux mentionnés dans les archives de l'Hôtel-Dieu, essentiellement dans l'inventaire de 1561, fournira les données qui seront ensuite cartographiées à l'aide d'un système d'information géographique. L'analyse spatiale permettra de définir l'ampleur et la nature du pouvoir de l'hôpital au XVIe siècle, mais aussi à travers les siècles puisque l'inventaire recense des actes depuis le XIIIe siècle. Les écrits volontairement conservés  donnent alors une image orchestrée et organisée en fonction des rapports sociaux dont ils témoignent. L'exemple de l'Hôtel-Dieu d'Orléans au XVIe siècle est à cet égard éloquent. Il souligne que la constitution d'une archive n'est pas tant un lieu de mémoire qu'une pratique de construction sociale.

 

Jan GRABOWSKI  

Polish "Blue" Police, Bystanders and the Holocaust in Occupied Poland 1939-1945

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2020)

The Holocaust has been an object of intense historical scrutiny at least since the late 1960s. Surprisingly, however, there are still significant areas of study which have never been properly addressed. This research proposal wishes to explore an issue largely neglected by historians and which, at the same time, has a crucial importance for our knowledge of the period, for the shape of current debates about the moral condition of the European societies, and which will offer new paths for further research. The project will thus examine the role of the "Blue" police in mobilizing "bystanders" into direct action against the Jews. The police, through its dense network of paid and unpaid informers and due to the many informal links with the local communities, and the local administration, was able to create a system of repression which, for the Jews in hiding, proved to be more deadly than its centralized, German counterpart.

 

Micheline LESSARD

Illegal Recruitment, the Criminalization and Vietnamese workers, and the Question of Migrants in French Colonial Indochina, 1890-1940

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2021)

This research proposes to examine two closely linked phenomena. The first was the development of an illegal, criminal, network of labour brokers who were either Chinese or Vietnamese, and who, for a fee, would find labourers for the recruiters and for the plantation and mine owners. The second, related, phenomenon pertains to the "criminalization" of workers on the plantations and in mines. Desperate for manpower much of the time, owners of these business ventures would at times "hold" workers against their will, even shooting some as they tried to escape.

 

Sylvie PERRIER  

La juridiction du ventre: droit et pratiques judiciaires liés à la procréation dans la France d'Ancien Régime

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2013-2018)

La monarchie de la France d’Ancien Régime a initié au 16e siècle une offensive juridique qui avait pour but d’établir plus fermement sa juridiction sur les familles. Associés informellement au pouvoir dans ce que l’historienne Sarah Hanley a qualifié de « family-state compact », les juristes français ont contribué à cette entreprise d’élaboration et d’interprétation du droit de la famille pour soutenir leur propre position au sein de l’État et de la société française. Encadrer juridiquement la famille signifiait de contrôler les conditions et les effets de la procréation. Les juristes ont donc puisé dans les diverses sources du droit pour élaborer un discours et des usages qui limitaient le contrôle que les femmes avaient sur leur propre corps, dans le but de mieux encadrer la transmission du patrimoine et de favoriser la stabilité des familles du royaume. Ils ont ainsi défini les contours d’une juridiction du ventre féminin et de son contenu, l’enfant à naître. Dans la pratique juridique et devant les tribunaux, cette juridiction du ventre féminin a fait l’objet de multiples contestations, les futures mères contribuant autant à revendiquer leur juridiction sur le ventre qu’à en contester le contrôle par les hommes ou les agents de l’État. La pratique de la curatelle au ventre, qui consistait à nommer un curateur pour surveiller une veuve enceinte et préserver les droits de l’héritier à naître, illustre bien cette volonté de contrôle. Que cette pratique ait été inscrite sans débat au Code civil de 1804 (article 393) et n’ait été abolie en France que lors de la réforme des dispositions sur la tutelle en 1964 soulève d’intéressantes questions que cette recherche vise à élucider. Le projet a pour objectif premier d’analyser les relations entre l’État, le droit et le corps des femmes dans la France d’Ancien Régime et de comprendre comment le discours et les pratiques juridiques sur la procréation s’articulaient avec les savoirs médicaux et la culture religieuse de l’époque. Ce projet entend également développer le concept de culture juridique dans l’analyse des relations de genre et ainsi produire une réflexion sur le long terme autour des enjeux de la procréation en suivant la postérité du discours juridique d’Ancien Régime.

Ce projet fera une contribution marquée à l’histoire du droit français, qui dépasse les frontières de l’Hexagone, à une histoire du corps féminin en plein développement, de même qu’à l’histoire politique des femmes. Il montrera que le droit civil, encore trop peu exploité en histoire, est une composante essentielle pour notre compréhension des relations de genre et de pouvoir. Ce projet se veut aussi un outil de réflexion dans les débats contemporains sur la procréation, constamment renouvelés par les développements scientifiques et un contexte religieux mondialisé.

 

Meredith TERRETTA

Activism Along the Global Fringe: Rogue Lawyers, International Law and Africa's Legal Construction

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2020)

By following activist lawyers and their defendants in the League of Nations mandate territories and the United Nations trust territories of Africa from the 1920s to the 1970s, this project will interconnect and make original contributions to the dynamic fields of international history, human rights history, legal history, and the history of Africa and the African diaspora. It will examine the League of Nations and its successor, the United Nations, as networking hubs for Africans' politically and legally constructed rights claims that crossed imperial, racial and linguistic boundaries.

 

Department of Modern Languages and Literatures

Andrew DONSKOV 

Sophia Tolstaya's correspondence with Leo Tolstoy: A personal and professional dialogue

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2015-2019)

This aim of this project is the first-time publication (in four volumes; in the original Russian) of the entire extant correspondence between writer Leo Tolstoy and his wife, Sofia Andreevna Tolstaya, in chronological order, with annotations in English, including, not notably, 201 hitherto unpublished letters from Tolstaya to Tolstoy, as well as her postscripts (all un published) to other people's letter addressed to him. A comprehensive critical study in English of their personal and especially professional relationship, based on their correspondence, is planned as a fifth volume.

The proposed project is highly interdisciplinary in nature, reaching far beyond strictly Tolstoy research - into history, sociology, culturology and gender studies. It will serve not only seasoned acdemics but also the next generation of yound scholars, in addition to members of the general public. The project as envisioned, chronicling and examining imporant personal and professional exchanges between two significant Russian figure of the turn of the 20th century, will prove a landmark and referential publication for many years to come.

 

Rebecca MARGOLIS  

Cultural Transmission after Catastrophe: Yiddish in Canada After the Holocaust

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2013-2018)

How do civilizations respond to catastrophe? They can heal, memorialize and commemorate. They also can salvage and rebuild, or build anew. This research illuminates a highly instructive case of an ethnic/religious group that continues to revitalize and renew its cultural legacy after massive upheaval. Specifically, it examines how Canadian Jews have engaged with the Yiddish cultural heritage of Eastern Europe following the devastation of the Nazi Holocaust. The findings will offer new sites for exploring the role of culture as a collective response to experiences of loss.

The heartland of a multifaceted diasporic Yiddish civilization, with its thousand year-old roots in Europe, was decimated in the Nazi Holocaust. In contrast to a pre-War transnational network of Jewish cultural centres in which Yiddish served as lingua franca as well as vehicle of revitalization in forums ranging from the political arena to the arts, Yiddish after the Holocaust faced worldwide displacement. However, due to the particular dynamics of Jewish integration within a multicultural Canada, Yiddish has continued to offer a viable usable past as well as a strong basis for cultural innovation in the shift from immigrant to ethnic or heritage language, even as it faced decline as a spoken language within the Jewish mainstream. Rather than jettison Yiddish as it faced attrition or relegate it to the realm of memorialization, purveyors of secular Yiddish culture across Canada voiced a deliberate commitment to the language and generated multiple ways to promote the language and its creative output within a community that increasingly did not speak it, notably through translation and performance. Further, Ultra Orthodox (Haredi) Jewish enclaves have revitalized Yiddish as a daily spoken language in their communities. While a core component of the Canadian Jewish experience, Yiddish culture after the Holocaust has not been analyzed in any comprehensive fashion.

This historical study offers a broad and nuanced analysis of Yiddish culture in Canada after the Holocaust in four areas: education, literature, theatre, and music. It considers different manifestations of Yiddish usage over a period of six decades across Canada, notably in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver, which have been the sites of innovative and varied developments in Yiddish cultural life. Artifacts of study will include the creative output of Canadian Yiddish writers, both native speakers and Canadian-born or raised; translation projects; the archives of communal organizations such as schools and community theatres; and oral histories with producers and consumers of Yiddish culture from multiple generations of the Jewish community, ranging from the secular through the Ultra Orthodox ends of the spectrum. This data will be employed to discuss how Yiddish has been transmitted intergenerationally as well as cross-culturally, the ways which Yiddish culture offers a site of continuity as well as discontinuity, and the roles that Holocaust discourse has played in this transmission.

 

Agatha SCHWARTZ

"Children of the Enemy": Narrative Constructions of Identity Following Wartime Rape and Transgenerational Trauma in Post-WWII Germany and Post-Conflict Bosnia

SSHRC-funded Insight Development Grant (2016-2018)

The present study will explore two little known aspects of two disturbing chapters in 20th century European history: 1) the mass rape of German women by the Red Army in the last months of and in the period following World War II; and 2) the systematic rapes of mainly Muslim Bosnian women by Serbian and Croatian militia during the war in former Yugoslavia between 1992-1995. In both these episodes of mass wartime rape, the women who survived had to cope not only with mental and physical illness but also with unwanted pregnancies. Our analysis seeks to highlight how, on the one hand, these mass rapes affected the mothering practices of the women who were impregnated; and, on the other hand, how the trauma was passed down to the next generation(s) influencing the social position, well-being and identity of the children (in the German case, also possibly the grandchildren) born following the rapes.

 

School of Information Studies

Inge ALBERTS

Collaborative Appraisal Practices and Automated Records Classification: A Study of Email Management in the Government of Canada

SSHRC-funded Insight Development Grant (2016-2018)

For the recordkeeping discipline, the process of determining whether a piece of information has value for an institution pertains to the appraisal function. Increased collaboration between the records managers and the records users is becoming critical to deal with the important volume, variety and speed of digital information created and received daily by organizations. The research aims to examine the collaborative appraisal practices of recordkeeping experts and non-experts in order to assist the appraisal process with automatic classification. Through the study of email management in the Canadian Government, the research will investigate: 1) the strategies and criteria shared between recordkeeping experts and non-experts to appraise the value of records; 2) the applicability of genre theory to inform the appraisal of records; 3) the methods and tools to help the appraisal process with automatic classification.

Lynne BOWKER

Librarian involvement in academic program reviews: Investigating the faculty perspective using corpus-based methods

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2017-2020)

Countries around the world, including Canada, consider academic program review to be a critical component of quality assurance (QA) in higher education. Recently, however, leading public policy and higher education scholars and practitioners have questioned whether methods used to evaluate post-secondary education in Canada are as effective as they could be. One area where there is significant room for improvement is in regard to the contribution of academic librarians to program reviews. University libraries exist to improve the quality of studying and research, so academic librarians should play a key role in assuring the quality of academic programs and, by extension, in the program review process. Nevertheless, many librarians report that their participation in program reviews is often minimal, and they suggest that faculty practices and attitudes are major barriers to their involvement. Previous investigations into the contribution of academic librarians to the program review process have used indirect measures (e.g. surveys and interviews) and have focused exclusively on the perspective of librarians. To gain a deeper understanding of the overall issue, this project seeks to cross-verify and complement these studies by conducting an empirical corpus-based investigation of a large number of program review materials prepared by faculty members. Concretely, a more complete picture that is based on both direct and indirect measures, and which considers both librarian and faculty perspectives, would serve as a solid base from which to identify best practices and missed opportunities for librarian participation in the program review process. This is turn will lead to recommendations for ways to meaningfully involve academic librarians in program reviews with a view to enhancing academic program quality for the benefit of the entire university community and for society at large.

Anticipated benefits of this research project include more meaningful integration of university librarians in program reviews in all disciplines, which will in turn lead to a) stronger overall relationships between librarians and faculty members, b) raised awareness among faculty and students of the ways in which librarians can better support teaching and research, and c) added assurance for universities and governments that there is a regular and systematic assessment of the university library's contribution to programs (thus demonstrating that librarians are responsible stewards of library resources). Additionally, by improving the review process so that it encourages the integration of more accurate and comprehensive descriptions of library services and resources in program review materials, the resulting reviews will themselves be of a higher quality, which will in turn lead to improvements in all areas of the academic program where the library provides support, as well as reveal gaps or opportunities for the library to enhance services or resources. Enhanced programs in every field of study will better serve the needs of Canada's students. Meanwhile, graduates of these programs will be better equipped to thrive in an evolving society and labour market, and to make a strong contribution as global citizens.

Heather MORRISON  

Sustaining the knowledge commons (open access scholarship)

SSHRC-funded Insight  Grant (2016-2021)

The overarching objective of the proposed research is to understand how best to bring about the transition of published scholarly works to a knowledge commons. One aspect of this research is a focus on the resources needed by small scholar-led journals to thrive in an open access future. This is unique and important; most of the attention, and revenue, goes to a small number of commercial publishers. The portion of the research devoted to modeling and analysis will assist direct and indirect funders of scholarly publishing (university libraries and research funders) to develop best practices for support.

 

Department of Linguistics

Ana ARREGUI

The syntax and semantics of perspectival meanings: a cross-linguistic view

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2019)

How we phrase what we say often conveys information about our perspectives and points of view on the content of our speech. Human languages provide speakers with a broad range of grammatical strategies to express their perspective. These include 'unusual' uses of tenses (like 'future' -ll in English to signal that the speaker has reached a conclusion through her/his own reasoning: "Oh, the lights are on. Jane'll be in her room now."), full-fledged moods (like the Albanian 'admirative mood' with a complete range of tenses used to indicate surprise), and particles indicating the source of evidence (like the hearsay evidentials of Mebengokre). The possibility of coloring what we say with our own perspectives and points of view is a fundamental part of the toolkit that human language makes available to us as speakers and a characterizing feature of human communication. This project investigates how the grammars of the languages we speak shape the perspectives we express by studying the construction of perspectival meanings across different languages.

We characterize perspectival meanings broadly as those that add information centered on the speaker's knowledge, evidence or expectations. Our objectives include a better understanding of cross-linguistic diversity in terms of the grammatical categories that encode speaker-perspective, and a better understanding of how the different grammatical categories themselves shape and systematize the expression of speaker-perspective.

Marc BRUNELLE

Voicing and its transphonologization: the initiation and actuation of a sound change in Southeast Asia

For half a century, most research about sound change has been conducted as part of the variationist framework and has focused on indexical social factors. While this line of research has been extremely successful, the past decade has seen renewed interest in understanding why and how sounds change from narrower phonetic and phonological perspectives, thanks to new techniques allowing more fine-grained phonetic studies and computational modelling of phonological systems. This project will address the question of the initiation of sound change by investigating transphonologization, a type of process that happens when a secondary phonetic property of a phonological contrast becomes its primary property. For example, in French, vocal fold vibrations during the initial consonant (i.e. the onset) of the syllable /ba/ distinguish it from /pa/. These vibrations are called onset voicing. Onset voicing is accompanied by redundant pitch variation on the vowel: thus, /ba/ is produced with a lower pitch than /pa/. In many languages, like Vietnamese and Chinese (but even Afrikaans, a dialect of Dutch), onset voicing was abandoned altogether as the pitch difference on vowels was exaggerated and became the primary contrastive property: /ba~pa/ became /pà~pa/ (this is called tone). In short, onset voicing was transphonologized into a tone contrast on the vowel. Besides pitch, a number of other phonetic properties also tend to co-occur with onset voicing. There is indirect perceptual evidence that voice quality (the degree of breathiness/creakiness of a vowel) and vowel quality (what distinguishes high [i] from high-mid [e] or from low [a]) are also affected by it. However, no systematic acoustic study of these ancillary properties of voicing has yet been conducted in real languages. This gap needs to be filled as many languages, especially in Southeast Asia, seem to have phonologized one or more of these properties into bundles of correlated acoustic properties known as registers. In register systems, the vowels that used to follow voiced onsets take on a higher quality, a low pitch and a breathy voice, whereas the vowels that followed voiceless onsets take on a lower quality, a high pitch and a modal voice. While we know how register systems form, our understanding of why they develop is still very limited. Another question that has not properly been addressed is why register systems seem unstable and can evolve in a variety of phonetic directions, like simple tone systems or complex vowel inventories. Better descriptions of the ancillary phonetic properties of voicing will allow us to understand how and why it is transphonologized into different types of register. The diverse register systems of Southeast Asia are thus an ideal testing ground to explore the factors that favor and constrain phonologization.

In this project, production and perception studies of four languages that preserve an onset voicing contrast (French, English, Chrau, Jarai) will be conducted to better understand its phonetic properties. The production and perception of register in eight Southeast Asian languages that have transphonologized onset voicing in different ways will then be explored. These results will be used to build computational models of the phonologization of voicing designed to address questions such as: Why do some languages transphonologize voicing while others preserve the original voicing contrast? Why do different languages transphonologize different ancillary properties of voicing? Why are some paths of change more common, while others are more rarely attested? The models will allow us to test hypotheses about the effect on sound change of bias factors such as phonetic salience, the structure of phonological systems and contact.

Stephen LEVEY

Learning to sound like a native speaker: The acquisition of sociolinguistic competence in English by
Canadian Francophones

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2021)

What does it take for a second language (L2) learner to sound like a native speaker of a language? Traditional answers to this question range from the mastery of the core grammatical features of the language being learned to the ability to approximate native-like pronunciation. A third requirement, constituting a relatively new line of inquiry, involves the capacity to acquire sociolinguistic variation characteristic of the target language. This variation, essentially involving different ways of 'saying the same thing,' is typically embedded in structured systems governed by implicit social and linguistic constraints. Because this variation is an integral component of native speaker sociolinguistic competence, it follows that for L2 speakers to 'sound native,' sociolinguistic variation must be acquired in the process of becoming proficient in the target language.

In Canada, much previous research addressing this issue has privileged the acquisition of French by Anglophones. Conversely, little systematic attention has been paid to the acquisition of English by Francophones, particularly in naturalistic contexts, where L2 speakers are exposed to the sociolinguistic norms of everyday colloquial English. How permeable are L2 speakers to these (typically untaught) norms? How proficient in English must L2 speakers be to acquire them? To what extent are these norms (in)completely acquired? We address these questions by focusing on the L2 English used by Canadian Francophones in the Ottawa-Gatineau metropolitan area, the locus of extensive bilingualism and language contact. A major innovative component of the investigation is our use of extensive databases of spontaneous L2 speech, native colloquial English, and local vernacular French to analyze L2 acquisition from multiple perspectives. We sub-divide our L2 population into two groups: a lower proficiency and an upper proficiency L2 cohort. Using a systematic comparative approach, we assess the role that differential L2 proficiency plays in the acquisition of a range of sociolinguistic variables,
including ones involved in ongoing linguistic change in the target-language community. Our research design enables us to bring new findings to bear on L2 speakers' capacity to approximate local native-speaker norms, and to assess whether, and to what extent, L2 speakers participate in advancing linguistic change in the target-language community. By factoring a corpus of local vernacular French into the analysis, we additionally examine how L2 speakers' native language, French, may affect their L2 usage via cross-linguistic transfer.

We also explore the social dynamics of acquiring sociolinguistic proficiency in the target language by incorporating a range of extra-linguistic variables into our investigation (e.g., age at which English was acquired; degree of exposure to native Anglophone communities; attitudes to English). These allow us to probe an array of social and attitudinal factors (e.g., instrumental vs. integrative motivations for acquiring and using English) which may potentially impact on L2 speakers' ability (and willingness) to approximate native-like patterns of sociolinguistic variation.

Our research has important real-world implications beyond the confines of sociolinguistics. It is of potential interest to pedagogues and second language educators, as well as being directly pertinent to federal policy initiatives aimed at promoting Canada's emblematic linguistic duality.

Dennis OTT 

Incomplete Questions in French: Implications for the Theory of Ellipsis

SSHRC Insight Development Grant (2018-2020)

Ellipsis—the omission of words from sentences—is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human language. An elliptical question such as “Who?” in response to the statement “I saw someone” is effortlessly understood to mean “Who did you see?”, despite the fact that most of what is understood is left unspoken. How is this possible, and how do such fragmentary expressions fit into our theories of syntax (sentence structure) and prosody (sentence intonation)?

While ellipsis in questions, known as “sluicing,” has been studied extensively, it remains fundamentally unclear how syntax and prosody interact in the expression and comprehension of such utterances across different languages. Specific intonational and syntactic properties of French, for instance, pose significant challenges for current theories of sluicing, which are based almost exclusively on the study of Germanic languages. These challenges, which have not been addressed so far, generate research questions that are readily amenable to systematic empirical investigation. The proposed project will therefore probe, against the backdrop of current theories of sluicing and through a series of experiments in a controlled laboratory setting, how grammatical properties of questions in Canadian French affect the formation of sluicing constructions. Natives peaker participants will perform a sentence completion task (yielding oral responses that will be subjected to a computer based analysis) and rate the perceived naturalness of sluicing sentences exemplifying different syntactic conditions in two related judgment studies.

This research aims to advance theoretical understanding of ellipsis in natural language by investigating the phenomenon through the lens of French sluicing. There exists a vast literature on sluicing in a wide variety of typologically diverse languages, however as of yet, French—in both its European and Canadian varieties—is notably absent from this otherwise impressive research record. The project will address this gap in our knowledge by systematically investigating key empirical properties of French sluicing and assessing their theoretical implications. Current theories of sluicing make specific and testable predictions about the formation of elliptical questions, several of which are challenged by French facts that have been informally reported in the literature (including the applicant’s preliminary research). By addressing these challenges and contributing to our knowledge of sluicing in French, the project will advance understanding of the grammatical mechanisms that govern ellipsis in language more generally.

Ellipsis, and sluicing in particular, has long been of central interest to linguistic theory, due to the fact that various aspects of grammar contribute to its form and use. By investigating the interaction of these components in French sluicing, the  project will benefit research in various domains of linguistic theory, such as syntax, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics. In addition, by focusing specifically on Canadian French it will increase the visibility of these hitherto understudied varieties within the research community. Furthermore, the methodology, empirical findings, and theoretical conclusions of the research will inform investigations of sluicing in other languages, as well as research on variation across European and Canadian varieties of French and bilingualism. Due to the central relevance of ellipsis to language acquisition, computational discourse modelling and artificial intelligence, the proposed research will furthermore be beneficial to researchers working in these fields as well. For example, given the ubiquity of ellipsis and sluicing in everyday speech, understanding its formal nature is essential to the design of intelligent human computer interfaces (such as Apple’s Siri), which perform notoriously poorly in the comprehension and production of elliptical utterances. Gaining a better understanding of the syntactic and prosodic conditions under which sluicing is licensed can help improve the accuracy of the mapping between elliptical expressions and complete sentences that must be implemented in speech recognition systems.

 

Shana POPLACK

Driving and impeding change: The competing roles of school, community and ideology

SSHRC Insight Grant (2017-2022)

Spoken vernaculars have always represented an easy target for normative critiques, especially when perceived deviations from the standard are numerous, salient and associated with "bad" grammar. This is particularly true of transplanted and/or minority languages, which are often assumed to have changed, because of isolation from the conservative influence of the metropolis, contact with a majority language, or both. But our work on many such situations has shown that such inferences are often incorrect because they hinge crucially on 1) how change is defined, 2) the capacity to identify it, especially when it is in progress, and 3) the benchmark against which the outcome of the putative change is compared. When the benchmark is a prescribed standard, change is a knee-jerk inference, because non-standard variants are prescriptively inadmissible. Many reports of change involve only the garden-variety linguistic variability inherent in all spoken language. How can we ascertain whether variability is the result of change?

The overarching objective of my work has been to address these issues, through a wide-ranging research program aiming to elucidate the multifarious nature of language change. Many key issues remain poorly understood, including how to identify, date and document the mechanisms and trajectories of change, and especially in the Canadian context, how to distinguish contact-induced change from internal evolution. I have explored these questions through systematic analysis of speakers' actual use of French, English and other languages in social context. Together, these complementary lines of evidence have contributed to our knowledge of language change, while at the same time providing much-needed information on the structure and use of Canada's official languages. My work, both past and proposed, draws on novel methodologies and linguistic data sets of unparalleled richness, virtually all developed by me and my team over decades of SSHRC support, and now fully accessible at my Sociolinguistics laboratory. The infrastructure, an array of massive corpora coupled with numerous analyses of key sociolinguistic variables, is all in place. Together, these represent a coherent, multipronged attack on issues related to language contact, variation and change. I propose to capitalize on this wealth of material to bring three of the streams that have characterized my ongoing research to completion by assembling and synthesizing proposed and finalized work in the form of independent but interrelated monographs. This will require filling in existing gaps by undertaking a series of analyses, both original and replications, described below. Proposed work will focus on the development of French on Canadian soil, with special emphasis on its relationship to other varieties of French and to the prescribed standard, the success of our educational institutions in promulgating it, and what aspects of it are acquired by young francophones. This is essential information for educators and policy-makers. All of these findings will be synthesized and disseminated in the form of three volumes and the variety of knowledge mobilization activities detailed below.

Laura SABOURIN  

The bilingual mental lexicon: the role of age of acquisition and proficiency

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2014-2019)

Do English-French bilinguals represent the word 'snow' in exactly the same way as they represent 'neige'? And, if they hear the word 'snow', do they automatically access the word 'neige'? Are these words processed together in an integrated lexicon? Finding a conclusive answer to these questions is the main goal of this project. Researchers have struggled with the issue of how a bilingual represents the words of their languages. The debate focuses on whether the words of both languages can be found in the same lexicon or whether there is a separate store for the words in each language (e.g., Hernandéz, 2002). This research project tackles the issue of lexical organization by studying English-French bilinguals and second language (L2) learners and compares these groups to monolinguals. Understanding how multiple languages are represented in the mind is essential in order to obtain a full picture of language organization. This research program investigates linguistic processing at the word and sentence level and uses psycholinguistic methodologies. This complements my larger research goals of taking a lifespan approach to the study of how all linguistic levels are organized and processed. The findings will be of fundamental interest to researchers interested in psycholinguistic models of language representation and processing and researchers interested in language learning. Research has shown that there are different ways by which words can be automatically activated within the lexicon. For example, 'snow' is accessed if we hear it or read it. Amazingly, a word can also be activated via connections to associated words (Jackendoff, 2002). This is called spreading activation. The word 'snow' is linked to the word 'blizzard' because their meanings are related. Thus, the word 'snow' activates the word 'blizzard'. How this spreading activation works between items from different languages is hotly debated. Some studies show that such spreading activation is possible between languages, others show that it is not. This is complicated by the numerous types of bilinguals that are traditionally used in this type of research. For example, studies have tested bilinguals who have learned two languages from birth or early in life, bilinguals who have learned a L2 later in life, bilinguals who have not yet attained a high proficiency in their L2, bilinguals whose languages are linguistically related, and bilinguals whose languages are not related. Many of the previous studies have also collapsed the notions of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and proficiency. Overlooking and neglecting these issues has resulted in a lack of homogeneity among the groups in studies of bilingualism. This is a shortcoming to understanding the bilingual mental lexicon because it makes it difficult to draw conclusions from such a wide variety of studies. To address these shortcomings, a critical component of this research is that it will carefully monitor both AoA, proficiency and cognitive control in order to tease these factors apart. Understanding AoA effects has been deemed one of the most important issues in the field of L2 processing (Hakuta, et al., 2003; Hernandez & Li, 2007; Kennedy & Normal, 2005). However, it is likely that AoA alone cannot give a full picture of how multiple languages are represented in the mind and in fact it is likely that effects of proficiency affect organization differently at different times. Adding yet another level of complexity is the issue of cognitive control, a skill that bilinguals are purported to be better at (e.g., Bialystok, 2012).

Andrés SALANOVA

Investigations on the theory of action nominals in highly nominalizing languages

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2023)

This project will adopt a cross-linguistic perspective on nominalizations, which in contemporary
linguistics designates the derivation of nouns from verbs or adjectives (e.g. arrival, beauty). Current
theories of nominalizations are based on well-studied languages such as English, in which event
nominalizations play a relatively marginal role. The present study will shift the empirical focus to
less-studied aboriginal languages of the Americas, in which nominalizations are widespread and play a
central role. In these "Highly nominalizing languages" (HNLs), nominalizations are used to ask
questions, make generic statements, and construct modal meanings, and are often the only way to
express subordinate clauses. Languages from the following South American and Mesoamerican families
will be investigated directly by the researchers in the field: Gê (Brazil), Mayan (Mexico, Guatemala),
Tupian (Brazil, Paraguay), Enlhet-Enenlhet (Paraguay) and Nambiquaran (Brazil); further languages will
be studied by collaborators to the project. The project will develop theoretical proposals, and also
provide valuable description to establish a basis for future comparisons with languages of North
America where nominalization is prima facie as important (e.g. Numic, Tsimshianic, Salishan).
The study of nominalizations is of the utmost importance to understand linguistic variation, since they
afford a window into the cognitive representation of situations, and touch upon the question of how
different languages embed propositions syntactically and semantically, a topic that is central in linguistic
theory, and that was the object of a heated debate in recent years. HNLs provide ideal vantage points
from which to study the range of options that human languages make available for the articulation of
meaning in syntax: meanings that have traditionally been considered inherently verbal appear with the
shapes of nouns. Incorporating data from HNLs into current theories will require a fundamental
re-assessment of accounts developed on the basis of more familiar languages. To fully appreciate
variation, comparisons will be made with languages with opposite traits (notably the Balkan languages,
which only allow finite subordination).

Specific research questions and hypotheses are grouped into three main lines of inquiry in this project:
(1) What morphosemantic categories are expressed in nominal expressions, both eventive and
non-eventive, in HNLs, and how do they contribute to the meaning of the noun phrase and the clause?
(2) In the languages that allow the use of nominalizations as independent clauses, what is their range of
meanings? How are these meanings related to nominalizing morphology? (3) Are nominalizations in
HNLs as varied in meaning and range of usage as embedded finite clauses in more familiar languages? If
both coexist in a single language, how is the range of usage divided between the two? How and to what
extent may embedded nominalizations be made to refer to situations other than the here and now?

Through fieldwork, the project will produce valuable description of minority aboriginal
languages with few written materials. The investigators have a track record of ethical and proactive
involvement with the communities of speakers, and in the training of native speaker linguists and other
aspects of language development. The project will allow the continuity of such involvement, with
lessons of broader applicability to minority and/or unwritten languages worldwide. Moreover, by
bringing relatively ignored data into the centre of theoretical debate, the project will promote the
important role that aboriginal languages have to play in theoretical development, helping to correct past
biases resulting from limited data.

Tania S.  ZAMUNER

Role of speech production in language learning

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2023)

When a child learns a new word, does it help if the child says the word aloud? Many of us will answer,
'Yes, of course!'. But the picture is far from simple and the effect of production on language learning is
not straightforward. While producing words has been shown to benefit children's learning, new research
indicates that in some cases, production actually disrupts children's learning. This program will provide
answers to questions about the role of speech production in language learning.

Language is central to communicating and social interactions. Learning to communicate involves
learning how language is produced. Many researchers study patterns in children's speech for insights into
how language develops. However, there is a major gap in our understanding of the role that children's
own speech plays in language development. This project consists of three research components that
target specific issues about the role of speech production on language learning, from different
perspectives. The first research component examines the role of production throughout development. To
date, there have been no controlled studies of the production effect with children under 5 years of age.
This SSHRC program fills this void by quantifying the effects of production with children who are just
beginning to produce language. The second research component will provide answers to the nature of
the reverse production effect - the fact that sometimes speech production disrupts learning. This effect
seems to depend on task, linguistic, and development related factors; however, it has not been studied
extensively. The last component investigates the long-term effects of production on learning. This is a
key issue to address, as the ability to produce language develops over childhood.

The topic of speech production speaks to a common experience: many of us have observed children's
amazing ability to produce language. What will emerge from this research program is a greater
understanding of the role of speech production in language development. This has a wide range of
applications that can help individuals interact in society. The results will lead to a better understanding
of how speech production can be used as a tool for clinical assessment and therapy. The findings will
also be relevant to software developers working on automatic speech recognition systems that enable
players to control gameplay through their own speech. Lastly, the findings will be of interest to
educators working on pedagogical methods, e.g., what are the best practices for teaching first and second
languages in the classroom.

The research program will be conducted at the uOttawa Living Lab at Canada's Science and Technology
Museum, opening in Fall 2017. Visitors will be invited to participate with their children in a research
study. As parents and children participate in this SSHRC program, they will contribute to the process of
science and discovery and learn about language development. Visitors to the uOttawa Living Lab will
also be able to interact with researchers, learn about ongoing studies, see hands-on demonstrations, and
explore interactive displays. During these dialogues, knowledge will be translated directly by the
researchers. An important societal benefit to Canadians is that they will be provided with accessible and
accurate information. The uOttawa Living lab will represent a successful experiment in social
innovation as it provides a novel way to simultaneously create and share knowledge with the public, and
foster public awareness about learning and discovery.

Spoken word production in early language development

NSERC Discovery Grant (2014-2020)

A wonderful milestone in children’s development is the day they produce their first word. This usually occurs around children’s first birthday. The emergence of spoken word production is even more amazing when we consider the fact that young children are not born with the ability to talk. Within the first 12 months of their lives, they go from having primarily comprehension-based knowledge and transition to a remarkable point in development when they begin to speak. In this short period of time, they have begun to unify their language comprehension and production abilities. This research tackles a fundamental and basic issue of language development: the cognitive processes of spoken word production in children. Central challenges to the learner are to develop mental representations of language, organize these representations, and integrate new representations into existing ones. Empirical studies of developmental speech production can help us understand how learners accomplish these fundamental tasks. This research will use on-line methods, measuring the time it takes to produce a word and tracking children’s eye movements to images as they produce a word. The questions addressed in this research have implications for how we conceive of early language development. These findings will be of interest not only to researchers in cognitive and language sciences, but also to health practitioners interested in tools for clinical assessment and therapy.

 

School of Music

Lori BURNS  

Constructing Genre in Narrative Music Videos: Intersecting Identities of Gender, Sexuality, Race, Class, Age and Ability in Word, Music and Image

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2013-2018)

Music videos promote popular artists in cultural forms that circulate widely across social media networks. With the advent of YouTube in 2005 and handheld technologies like the Blackberry and iPhone, the music video has become instantly available to millions worldwide and it continues to serve as a fertile platform for the debate of issues and themes in popular culture.

Music videos do important cultural work in terms of how they represent gender, race and sexuality in contemporary society. We argue that these representations are constituted in and through the interrelated configurations of music, lyrics and images and are shaped by the conventions of musical genre and performance. While research on gender representations in music videos tends to focus on how meaning is produced in the visual domain (i.e., images), our study examines how it is produced in the sonic, textual and visual domains. Specifically, our study will develop a more wide-ranging understanding of the roles played by gender, race and sexuality in music videos by conducting a fine-grained analysis of the features of five metagenres: pop, rap, R&B, rock and country.

Our examination of popular music videos maintains a firm focus on issues relating to the exercise and effects of power relations, particularly as they operate in and through representations of masculinities and femininities, racialized identities and alterities, heterosexualities and queer sexualities. Unlike much of the work in popular music studies, our work is just as concerned with the socially marginalized as it is with the socially privileged. With this in view, our approach allows us to ask a number of important questions: (1) In what ways are music videos bound up with specific types of knowledge about the world? (2) How do music videos give rise to particular ways of seeing? (3) How is pleasure bound up in the experience of watching music videos? (4) How are the power relations associated with the politics of gender, race and sexuality resisted through the medium of music videos?

 

Gilles COMEAU  

La lecture musicale: du débutant à l'expert

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2015-2020)

Cette recherche vise à comprendre le processus d,apprentissage de la lecture musicale afin de pouvoir intervenir plus efficacement au plan pédagogique. La maîtrise du code musical est réussie lorqsue des automatismes sont bien instaurés et que cela conduit à des productions vocales ou instrumentales exprimées avec aisance et précision. Mais la difficulté est de comprendre comment y parvenir. C'est l'objectif de notre projet de recherche.

Le volet en recherche fondamentale contribuera à élaborer un modèle préliminaire expliquant comment s'opère l,apprentissage de la lecture musicale. Nous pourrons ainsi identifier les différents stades initiaux de processus d'apprentissage et rendre compte de la spécificité des trajectoires menant à l,expertise en lecture. Nous porterons une attention toute particulière aux implications pédagogiques de ce modèle. Le volet de recherche appliquée nous permettra d'identifier les facteurs de difficulté dans la progresion des apprentissages en lecture et de découvrir les meilleures stratégies pour apprendre à lire. Les résultats obtenus contribueront à l'amélioration des techniques d'enseignement en proposant de meilleures interventions pédagogiques.

Music performance: When things go wrong, can somatic teaching result in improved performance and increased comfort while playing?

SSHRC Partnership Development Grant (2017-2020)

Mastering a musical instrument involves many years of dedicated daily practice and the physical aspect of playing, with its broad range of body movements, is considered the gateway to fulfilling musical expression. However, practicing a musical instrument places an extremely high demand on the musculoskeletal system (uncomfortable positions, repetitive movements, heavy instruments) and intense practice often can lead to pain and injury. Given the enormous physical, emotional, and monetary impact this can have, musicians are extremely motivated to explore new approaches to improve performance and increase comfort while playing. Many have turned to somatic teaching---methods that seek to promote motor learning or changes to motor behaviour by emphasizing internal physical perception and experience---to discover more comfortable and sustainable movement and posture strategies while performing.

Despite the abundance of subjective evidence that somatic teaching can improve postural alignment and integrate body movement allowing musicians to move more freely and with less pain, there is a lack of objective data confirming the benefits of this training. Considering the popularity of these approaches among musicians, particularly Body Mapping and the Feldenkrais and Alexander methods, as well as the large economic investment in workshops and long-term programs provided by music schools and professional music associations, the claim that somatic teaching impacts positively on the quality of musical performance (better tone and freer movement) and the musician's comfort must be assessed scientifically.

Musicians will be evaluated before and after a series of somatic teaching sessions using 1) juries of expert musicians, as well as MIDI technology, to see whether changes in the biomechanical aspects of performing have any impact on the quality of the musical performance; 2) specialised questionnaires to evaluate changes in mobility, and rating scales to measure the evolution of pain associated with playing; 3) various scientific tools including electromyography to measure muscle activation; thermography to study changes in body temperature; and motion tracking to observe movement patterns and breathing.

Our unique team of partners fall into three categories: 1) music institutions that will provide expertise during every phase of the project, contribute music professionals for the juries, provide a source of potential participants, and disseminate research results to their members; 2) somatic teaching institutions that will offer a 10-week series of somatic lessons for all participants and provide suggestions and feedback during all project phases; and 3) funding partners whose belief in the importance of finding ways to improve musicians' comfort while playing will ensure its financial feasibility.

In 2003, a Gallup poll found that 54% of American households had at least one person who plays a musical instrument; 48% had two or more. The Royal Conservatory of Music serves over 15,000 teachers and registers 80,000 students annually for music exams. The Federation of Canadian Music Festivals reports 680,000 participants in 2016. According to Orchestra Canada, 67 professional orchestras operated in Canada in 2014-15 with 24 of them having annual budgets over $1M. Considering that musicians are the second-largest group with work-related pain and injury, just behind computer users, and 17% of high school music students and over 40% of professional instrumentalists will be affected with playing-related problems, our study has the potential to create real and lasting impact on the everyday lives of musicians living with pain.

Julie PEDNEAULT-DESLAURIERS 

Clara Wieck-Schumann the Composer

SSHRC Insight Grant (2017-2021)

This project will illuminate the compositional strategies and stylistic attributes that characterize the music of Clara Wieck-Schumann (1819-96), one of the most famous female musicians of the early Romantic era, but whose distinctive techniques as a composer remain little studied or understood. While historians have thoroughly examined her career as a virtuoso pianist and life as the wife of composer Robert Schumann, music theorists have not investigated her works in systematic ways or discussed her specific compositional strategies. This lack of close analytical study of her works has generated a skewed perception of her style as mostly indebted to other composers rather than creative in its own right. My project will fill this important lacuna by offering a transformative investigation of Wieck-Schumann the composer. It will elucidate her approach to musical form in order to identify salient compositional processes. To do so, it will illuminate her innovative strategies for devising musical themes, the large-scale formal narratives she developed, and her creative interplay of formal techniques between instrumental and vocal works. By moving beyond her most famous works to also consider lesser-studied piano pieces, it will shed light on an overlooked portion of her oeuvre. My study examines published and unpublished works from 1836-56 (after which she stopped composing) produced at the height of her compositional powers and will allow both for detailed analysis and general conclusions about her style. It will inscribe her music in mainstream music-theoretical discourses---where women composers remain the exception---and show that she played a creative, rather than derivative, role in the emergence of musical Romanticism.

The project will also move beyond analysis into the realm of theory development. As there is currently no dedicated theory of musical form for the early Romantic era, analysts typically draw on theories developed for earlier music (i.e. Caplin's theory of formal functions and Hepokoski and Darcy's Sonata theory). To address the specificities of W.-Schumann's work, I will build on these theories to develop new formal concepts that transcend these theories' focus on the Classical repertory. Moreover, because Wieck-Schumann's main genres of composition (i.e. short piano pieces) are highly underrepresented in recent formal approaches, my project will help to redress a theoretical imbalance that marginalizes the smaller genres and forms to which 19th-century female composers were largely confined.

In sum, my project will advance research in two main areas: studies on Wieck-Schumann and on musical form. Its novel insights on a body of neglected works will lead to the delineation of a distinctive compositional profile for W.-Schumann. It will enable future analysts to transfer the project's theoretical advances to other Romantic music, offer new perspectives on the tools we use to analyze this music, and provide crucial data towards the development of a theory of early Romantic form. It will also augment our understanding of a still overlooked aspect of Romanticism, i.e. female compositional creativity. In a broader context, it will impact gender studies and social history as applied to music by re-evaluating W.-Schumann's role in Romantic compositional culture. It will contribute to discourses within and outside academy that foster greater consciousness of the accomplishments of female artists and incite a continued re-examination of their role in artistic canons. Through outreach initiatives for the general public, the project will help rebalance the popular perception of W.-Schumann, which excludes her creative activities. This study thus has ramifications that reach beyond its analytical-theoretical concerns.

Jada WATSON

A data-driven history of country music's geo-cultural origins

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2021)

Country music has historically been defined through a "southern thesis" which suggests that the music
emerged from the countryside and mountain hollows of the rural U.S. south (Malone 1968). Recent
scholars have challenged this paradigm (Huber 2008, 2014; Tyler 2014), critiquing the southern thesis as
a narrative that privileges the contributions from white, male, southern USA born artists (Mann 2008;
Pecknold 2013). The recording industry developed this construct in the 1920s as a way to market records
by segregating southern music into distinct musical genres linked to specific racial and class identities
(Brackett 2014; Miller 2010). Pecknold (2013) argues that this fictive construct, perpetuated by the
industry and embedded in the broader country music discourse, serves as a powerful exclusionary tool
that has obscured and even erased the contributions of artists born outside of the U.S. south, persons of
colour, and women.

In a period in which racism and gender inequality are at the fore of public, political and scholarly
discourse, this project will raise awareness around issues of gender, race, class, and geography as they
are shaped by and relate to country music identity and culture. Unlike the more liberal pop and hip-hop
genres, whose artists actively participate in public debate, country musicians have (with a few
exceptions) remained largely silent on political topics, especially those regarding gender and racial
inequality. While some may be fearful of being blacklisted (or worse) by the industry and fans in the
same manner as the Dixie Chicks were in 2003 (Watson & Burns 2010), this silence is often interpreted
as implicit agreement with Republican political ideologies (Hudak 2017). As such, it serves to reinforce
the southern thesis that keeps women, African Americans, and non-southern artists from participating in
country music. The proposed project will deconstruct the southern thesis, re-contextualize the discussion
surrounding country music's geo-cultural identity, and explore the ways in which it has dictated industry
practices.

The first of its kind in the field of musicology, this three-year project will adopt methods for Big Data
research in the humanities in order to undertake data-driven analysis of country music's geo-cultural
identity. To do so, it will develop a new methodological approach and technological infrastructure to
curate a diverse and comprehensive dataset of country music singles from Billboard's Hot Country
Songs (HCS) classification list, from its inception in 1944 to 2017. The project dataset of country songs
and their performers will be enhanced with biographic information about the broader network of artists
involved in the creative process in order to facilitate a vast range of queries about the relationships
between songwriters, performers, and producers involved in the creation of country music. This database
will be used to analyze the role that an artist's biography plays in our understanding of a genre's
geo-cultural identity. The research will go beyond basic questions about the regions that have produced
the most country performers to interrogate the intersection of complex parameters that influence the
success of a hit song. In so doing, it will discover the role that artists outside of the white, southern, male
construct have played in shaping country music's geo-cultural identity and breakdown the southern thesis
that underpins this nearly century-long narrative construct.

Gender Representation in the Country Music Industry, 1944-2017

SSHRC Insight Development Grant (2018-2020)

In a 2015 interview, country radio consultant Keith Hill spoke candidly about how female artists factor into
the genre format’s airplay rotation formula. Not only did he caution against playing songs by too many
female artists in a one hour rotation, but he also claimed that playing their songs back-to-back was against the rules. As the genre's leading female artists responded to the consultant’s comments (Keel 2015; Ungerman 2015), radio programmers admitted that this was precisely how country has functioned for decades (Keel 2015). Country radio developed this rotation practice in the 1960s as a way to structure their airplay time, initiating a practice of segregating music into distinct gender-defined patterns that favour male artists (Weisbard 2014; Watson [2018]). This gender construct, perpetuated by the industry and embedded in the broader country music discourse, has served as a powerful exclusionary tool that has obscured and indeed limited the contributions of female artists.

In a period in which gender inequality is at the fore of public, political and scholarly debate, this project
aims to raise awareness around issues of gender representation as they are shaped by and relate to
country music identity and culture. The proposed project will deconstruct the gender politics that have
governed the genre, recontextualize the discussion surrounding country music’s culture and identity and
explore the ways in which it has dictated industry practices. Adopting methods for Big Data research in the
humanities (Moretti 2005) and social sciences (Lafrance et al. 2011; Lafrance et al. 2017), and influenced
by the historical studies concept of prosopography (Keats-Rohan 2007), this project will develop an
approach for collecting and organizing music data in order to study how an artist's biography shapes and is
shaped by genre constructs. In order to address complex sociocultural issues, it will develop a
comprehensive dataset of singles from Billboard’s Hot Country Songs classification list, from its inception
in 1944 to 2017. The project dataset will be augmented with biographic information about the broader
network of artists involved in the creative process in order to facilitate a vast range of queries about the
relationships between the songwriters, performers and producers involved in the creation of country music.

This two-year project will develop a new research methodology to facilitate quantitative analyses of
musicological questions. It will develop infrastructure to curate a comprehensive and reliable dataset of
country music performers, songwriters and producers, which will permit large-scale analysis of genrebased
questions. More specifically, it will conduct a prosopographic study of the role that an artist’s biography
plays in shaping a genre’s culture over time. This line of inquiry is especially important for country music, a
genre tied to traditional gender constructs. As such, this project will go beyond basic questions about
country performers to interrogate the intersection of complex parameters that influence the success of a
hit song. For instance, the approach will lead to a better understanding of the gender, identity and roles of
the individuals writing the songs and the producers shaping the genre’s sound—roles often ignored in the
broader discussion of the genre’s community. Third, it will discover the role that female artists have played
in shaping country music culture. In so doing, it will challenge the gender construct that underpins this
narrative.

The first of its kind in the field of musicology, this project will set a precedent for the development of a
genre-based dataset, one that will have several important applications. The project dataset will be a
cornerstone for reshaping the genre’s narrative to better understand the role that female artists have
played in defining the genre. Given the size and scope of the data collected, it will support research on a
number of key themes, including the analysis of long-term trends in race representation, distribution, and
shifts in musical style. Not only are these issues actively discussed in country music scholarship, but they
are also particularly relevant within the broader context of sociopolitical and cultural discourse. The
methodology developed for this project, will have broad applicability to other humanities disciplines, and
could be easily adapted for use in other music genres and communities.

 

Official Languages and Bilingualism Institute

Jérémie SÉROR

Developing academic biliteracy: Longitudinal case studies of learning to write in Canada's official languages

SSHRC Insight Grant (2017-2022)

Significant investments are made every year throughout Canada to encourage bilingual literacy (i.e., biliteracy) in French and English in Canadian public schools for both language majority and language minority students (Mady, 2014). These investments reflect a recognition of the value of supporting multilingual literacy development in schools (Cummins, 2009) as well as the cognitive, economic, and social advantages of French-English bilingualism in Canada (Lazaruk, 2007). However, opportunities to develop advanced levels of biliteracy remain limited in Canada (Commissariat aux langues officielles, 2009). Moreover, little research exists exploring how students can build on their public school investments to become bilingual when they transfer to university settings and develop the advanced literacy skills (in particular writing) seen as key to fully taking advantage of these investments in academic and professional settings. This study will address this research gap by providing an empirically grounded account of university students' strategies for crosslingual or biliterate work (e.g., writing in one language while reading in another) and strategies for biliteracy development (developing literacies simultaneously in two languages or more by synergistically drawing on skills and knowledge acquired in one language when learning to write in another). This work aligns itself with recent calls to expand the scope of L2 writing studies to include a focus on second language writers' strategies for engaging in biliteracy events (i.e., concurrently drawing on multiple languages and modalities to read, write and speak in and across more than one language (Gentil, 2011; Hornberger, 2003)). At present while it is recognized that second language writers in university settings frequently write in one language while simultaneously working with another (for example writing a French report while drawing on ideas stemming from English sources), little is known about the strategies used by students to accomplish this work (Dion, 2012). The proposed study will investigate the biliteracy development of university students as it occurs in naturalistic settings. This project will draw on a longitudinal mixed-methods case study methodology triangulating multiple data sources collected over four years to capture the evolution of university students' texts, knowledge, and strategies as they learn to write in both of Canada's official languages. University undergraduate students committed to learning to write in French and English in the context of a large Canadian bilingual university will be recruited for the study. Questionnaires, language proficiency scores, interview data, and textual and process data will be collected to document language learners' engagement with texts while also adding to our understanding of the unique processes and strategies associated with the challenge of learning to write in more than one language. This innovative methodology draws on quantitative and qualitative procedures and will make use of the latest advances and tools in corpus linguistics as well as online keyboard logging and screen capture technologies to produce rich empirical records of students' biliteracy development embedded within authentic literacy practices and activities.

This project will contribute to scant and yet much-needed longitudinal educational research that sheds light on the varied contexts and events that promote or impede biliteracy development. It will also result in a unique bilingual, longitudinal learner corpus of English and French academic writing that can guide policy development and the creation of materials to help learners achieve advanced levels of literacy in both French and English in Canada.

Nikolay SLAVKOV

Reimagining Language Background Profiling at Canadian Elementary
Schools: Towards Bilingual and Multilingual Norms

SSHRC Insight Development Grant (2017-2019)

Canada’s complex linguistic and cultural landscape is comprised of two official languages, a steady influx of immigrants, and a number of Indigenous communities. Census data indicate that about 17% of Canadians are able to conduct a conversation in both English and French, and 20% of the population speaks a non-official language at home, either alone or combined with English and/or French (Statistics Canada 2011). Within this rich local context, and in a broader global environment where bilingualism and multilingualism are increasingly recognized as common rather than exceptional phenomena, this project will investigate language background profiling practices at publicly-funded elementary schools across Canada. Such profiling is typically done through school registration forms upon entry into the educational system and involves millions of children nationwide. Apart from my previous work (Slavkov 2015; in press), no other studies have examined the nature, extent and implications of language background profiling in Canada. As such, a significant gap exists in both scholarly and societal knowledge in this domain.

My initial work drawing on a limited data set from three provinces (Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia) suggests that educational institutions are well aware of incoming students’ potential linguistic diversity. However, the findings also indicate a high degree of variability in number, type and combination patterns of the language background questions both within and across provincial boundaries; this raises some questions about the accuracy and reliability of profiling. In addition, most registration forms do not allow explicitly for the possibility of a child having more than one first/native language, often do not specify whether the category of home language refers to the language used by the child or the adults in the household, and generally approach language profiling from a monolingual perspective.

The goal of this project is to expand on my previous work by collecting data from all of Canada’s provinces and produce a nation-wide analysis of elementary school language background profiling. Such an analysis will be able to further identify monolingual norms and practices and recast them into the more fluid and flexible frameworks of bilingualism and multilingualism. I will advance a novel theoretical approach and examine the nation-wide data along a continuum of what he calls chronological-nativist and synchronic-functional orientations to language background profiling. In addition, I will offer recommendations for improved accuracy and reliability of profiling and create a freely available online corpus with the project data. These outcomes will benefit other researchers, educational policy makers, and community stakeholders.

Overall, this project will create new knowledge that will encourage a further shift away from monolingual norms and towards bilingual and multilingual paradigms, both in the scholarly community and in society in general. Such endeavours are at the forefront of newly emerging global trends in research and will have significant impacts in various fields, such as applied linguistics, education, political science, psychology, sociology and beyond. In addition, this research will offer much needed tangible implications for policy makers and Canadian families.

Department of Philosophy

Antoine CÔTÉ

Jacques de Viterbe et ses critiques médiévaux

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2018-2021)

Mon objectif est d'éditer et de commenter deux textes dus à deux auteurs scolastiques qui analysent
longuement pour la critiquer la doctrine des raisons séminales du théologien augustinien Jacques de
Viterbe (1255-1308). Le premier de ces textes est un extrait d'une vingtaine de pages (existant, cependant, dans cinq témoins manuscrits différents) tiré de l'oeuvre d'un théologien dominicain du nom de Bernard d'Auvergne, actif à la fin du XIIIe siècle. Le deuxième est un texte d'à peu près quarante pages, présent dans un seul
manuscrit. Il est l'oeuvre d'un maître anonyme de la Faculté des arts de l'Université de Paris et semble
dater des années 1310-1315. L'importance de ces deux textes pour l'appréciation de la doctrine de Jacques de Viterbe est connue des spécialistes depuis cinquante ans, mais personne ne les a encore édités et aucune étude doctrinale approfondie ne leur a été consacrée. Ce sont ces deux lacunes que je me propose de combler dans le
programme de recherches ici présenté. Comme Jacques de Viterbe est un acteur important dans les débats philosophiques de la dernière décennie du XIIIe siècle et que la réception de sa pensée est très mal connue, mon travail ne pourra que conduire à une meilleure appréciation de l'impact et de la postérité de son oeuvre.

Sonia SIKKA

Political Philosophy and the Idea of Religion

SSHRC-funded Insight Grant (2016-2021)

This project evolved from my work on secularism and religious identity over the past several years, which increasingly led to a questioning and problematization of the idea of religion as it functions within social and political philosophy. The project seeks to unpack the features of this cultural phenomenon, or complex of phenomena, that need to be noted and analyzed in order to promote social justice and mutual understanding in liberal democratic societies. With this pragmatic goal in mind, my inquiry is structured around two overlapping aspects of the category of religion: 1) religion as system of belief, and 2) religion as group identity. The project looks particularly at discussions within political philosophy about the place of religion within public discourse; framings of religion within judicial reasoning; and debates surrounding religious education. I aim to locate possible instabilities and points of incoherence within and between interpretations of religion at such sites, on the part both of those who advance religious claims in public spheres and those who respond to them, and ask how these may be remedied.

Isabelle THOMAS-FOGIEL

Les deux figures de l'idéalisme. Etude sur les usages philosophiques du terme "idéalisme" de 1702 à
nos jours.

SSHRC Insight Grant (2018-2023)

Les philosophes qui, aujourd'hui, revendiquent le terme « idéaliste » sont rares. L'adjectif semble ne plus
désigner que des philosophes du passé : en premier lieu Kant et l'imposante constellation que fut
l'idéalisme allemand puis au début du vingtième siècle : Bradley, Royce ou Husserl. Mais si l'idéalisme
n'est plus guère revendiqué, il n'a pas disparu des actuels livres de philosophie. En effet, il est
abondamment mentionné par les philosophes qui, depuis une trentaine d'années, se réclament du «
réalisme » et font de l'idéalisme le prototype de l'écueil à éviter. De ces actuelles occurrences purement
négatives du terme « idéalisme » émerge une signification première : l'idéaliste serait celui qui, niant la
réalité du monde extérieur, se confondrait, dès lors, avec un subjectivisme débridé, débouchant sur un
relativisme généralisé. Or je compte démontrer qu'aucun philosophe idéaliste n'a jamais défendu pareille
position. Ce qui suscite la question suivante : comment une doctrine, que nul idéaliste n'a jamais
soutenue, peut-elle faire l'objet d'une telle unanimité dénonciatrice, des Encyclopédistes aux éclectiques
allemands du XVIIIe, de la "réfutation de l'idéalisme" par G. E. Moore jusqu'à certaines philosophies
réalistes les plus contemporaines? Comment comprendre l'écart entre la figure contestée de l'idéalisme et
l'idéalisme réellement professé par ceux qui ont revendiqué le terme?

Répondre à cette question est le but de cette étude, qui est à la fois philologique, historique et
conceptuelle. Elle accomplira une double tâche : 1) retracer la genèse et la structure du contresens qui
associe l'idéalisme à un subjectivisme et à un relativisme. 2) Dégager la signification véritable de
l'idéalisme et, ce faisant, dévoiler l'invariant commun aux principaux auteurs qui se sont affichés comme
idéalistes au cours de l'histoire : Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Royce, Bradley, Husserl.
Ainsi, je montrerai, d'une part, comment la figure de l'idéaliste en négateur de monde extérieur a pu
naître et sur quel terreau philosophique elle a pu prospérer. Suivre l'évolution sémantique du terme «
idéalisme » de sa création, par Leibniz en 1702, aux années 1770, me permettra de revenir aux actes
conceptuels qui ont présidé à la création de ce cliché. L'élucidation des conditions philosophiques qui
ont donné naissance à ce contresens me conduira également à éclairer les raisons de sa perpétuation bien
au-delà du XVIIIe siècle (par exemple chez Moore ou chez certains réalistes contemporains).
J'établirai, d'autre part, qu'est idéaliste toute philosophie : 1) qui a pour noyau central la notion « d'Idées
», « d'idéal » ou « d'idéalité », et 2) qui affirme qu'une connaissance vraie est possible, par opposition au
scepticisme radical. Ce qui me conduira à montrer que l'idéalisme historique n'est pas l'opposé de tout
réalisme et en même temps qu'il n'est pas tributaire d'une philosophie dite de la subjectivité. Seule la
notion générale « d'idéalité » confère au terme « idéalisme » son unité et sa spécificité.

Ainsi cette étude mettra au jour les deux figures de l'idéalisme à travers trois siècles d'histoire, de 1702 à
la philosophie contemporaine. La première vide, car sans référent historique, est néanmoins
philosophiquement décisive, car elle suppose, de la part de ceux qui la véhiculent à tort, un certain
nombre de gestes ou de décisions théoriques que je détaillerai tout au long de cette étude. La deuxième
figure, cette fois vérifiée par les textes, s'articule toujours autour des deux mêmes principes structurants
par-delà ses différentes projections (kantienne, hégélienne, husserlienne, etc.).

Department of Theatre

Mettre en scène des personnes plutôt que des personnages : perspectives éthiques et esthétiques d’une tendance dramaturgique contemporaine

SSHRC Insight Development Grant (2018-2020)

Sur les scènes théâtrales actuelles occidentales, sont présentées de plus en plus d’oeuvres qui mettent en
scène des individus non acteurs. Dans ce type de spectacle, la personne prend le pas sur le personnage et
une parole personnelle remplace le texte écrit par un auteur. La création théâtrale s’ancre dans le réel et
un rapport étroit doit s’établir entre les créateurs et des individus de la communauté qui sont hors leur
sphère professionnelle et assurément hors de leur zone de confort. Longtemps, ces pratiques ont fait
partie d’une catégorie à part, dans la marge communautaire des arts vivants, qualifiées de projet socioartistiques
ou de médiation culturelle. On leur reproche alors que leur ancrage communautaire vienne dénaturer une recherche artistique pure. Or, on observe aujourd’hui une revalorisation de cette tendance
et plusieurs exemples démontrent que c’est en créant l’oeuvre théâtrale en collaboration avec la
communauté que des metteurs en scène vont proposer des oeuvres innovantes qui questionnent
l’esthétique théâtrale et qui vont interpeler une audience plus large que la majorité des pièces de théâtre
contemporain. Au sein de L’eau du bain, organisme de création théâtrale, nous nous sommes engagés,
depuis 2015, dans un cycle de créations mettant en scène des individus de la communauté de différentes
générations. « Alors que les spectacles mettant en scène des nonacteurs
sont de plus en plus courants chez nous (…) les créations de L’eau du bain continuent de se distinguer. D’une désarmante simplicité, leurs performances poétiques sont parcourues d’interstices où projeter nos peurs et nos espoirs. » (SaintPierre, Le Devoir). Cet extrait d’une critique de notre plus récente création (Nous voilà rendus) montre que c’est une tendance forte dans l’esthétique théâtrale contemporaine que de mettre en scène des
nonacteurs.

Or, aucune étude approfondie n’y est consacrée et cette mouvance soulève des questions
essentielles sur l’évolution de la dramaturgie contemporaine. Car, si l’effritement du drame et du
personnage (Lehmann 1999) a déjà été relevé, c’est maintenant l’acteur professionnel, longtemps
considéré comme pierre angulaire de l’acte théâtral, qui s’absente. Le fait de mettre en scène des
personnes plutôt que des personnages, des citoyens plutôt que des acteurs, soulève des questions
esthétiques, mais aussi éthiques et politiques, auxquelles notre projet sera le premier à s’intéresser en
profondeur. Par exemple, sans précaution, il est facile de tomber dans le piège de l’appropriation
culturelle, du sensationnalisme ou du misérabilisme déguisé. Les créateurs doivent ainsi développer des
stratégies de création appropriées et sensibles. Un cadre éthique doit être respecté. Or ce dernier ne doit
pas se faire au détriment de la recherche esthétique. L’équilibre entre la valeur de l’expérience proposée
aux non acteurs et le rendu esthétique de l’oeuvre est précaire. Ces créations imposent des processus qui
ne correspondent pas aux modes de production habituels tels qu’attendus par les Conseils des arts et les
diffuseurs (théâtres et festivals) ou tels qu’enseignés dans les universités et conservatoires, il nous
apparaît important de s’intéresser à ces processus, jusqu’à présent, peu documentés.

 

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